## Elements of Surveying, and Navigation, with a Description of the Instruments, and the Necessary Tables |

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### Common terms and phrases

axis azimuth back-sights base line bearing called centre clamp-screw coincide column comp compass corresponding cosine Cotang course curve decimal degrees determined diff difference of latitude difference of level difference of longitude direction divided double meridian distance draw east elongation error example extremity feet field notes figure given line given point ground half hence horizontal angle horizontal distance horizontal plane hypothenuse inches instrument intersection latitude and departure length line AC line of collimation logarithm marked measure method middle latitude miles multiplied needle parallel parallel sailing passing perpendicular plane of reference plane sailing protractor radius right angles rods sailing scale of equal secant ship side similar triangles spider's lines square chains staff subtract surface survey tance Tang tangent theodolite Trigonometry true meridian vernier plate vertical limb yards

### Popular passages

Page 12 - FRACTION is a negative number, and is one more than the number of ciphers between the decimal point and the first significant Jigure.

Page 49 - ... the square of the hypothenuse is equal to the sum of the squares of the other two sides.

Page 41 - C' (89) (90) (91) (92) (93) 112. In any plane triangle, the sum of any two sides is to their difference as the tangent of half the sum of the opposite angles is to the tangent of half their difference.

Page 34 - The circumference of every circle is supposed to be divided into 360 equal parts called degrees, and each degree into 60 equal parts called minutes, and each minute into 60 equal parts called seconds, and these into thirds, fourths, &c.

Page 73 - Being on a horizontal plane, and wanting to ascertain the height of a tower, standing on the top of an inaccessible hill, there were measured, the angle of elevation of the top of the hill 40°, and of the top of the tower 51° ; then measuring in a direct line 180 feet farther from the hill, the angle of elevation of the top of the tower Cway 33° 45' ; required the height of the tower.

Page 40 - THEOREM I. The sides of a plane triangle are proportional to the sines of their opposite angles.

Page 19 - A right-angled triangle is one which has a right angle. The side opposite the right angle is called the hypothenuse.

Page 85 - What must be the nominal value of 4% bonds that will yield to their owner an annual income of $720 ? 7. A owns $6000 of 5% bonds; B owns $8000 of 4£% bonds. How much greater is the annual income from B's bonds than from A's ? 8. Find the area of a piece of land in the form of a rhomboid, whose base is 32 rods and whose altitude is 15 rods.

Page 35 - The secant of an arc is the line drawn from the centre of the circle through one extremity of the arc, and limited by the tangent passing through the other extremity. Thus, OC is the secant of the arc AB.

Page 130 - Take a board, of about one foot square, paste white paper upon it, and perforate it through the center; the diameter of the hole being somewhat larger than the diameter of the telescope of the theodolite. Let this board be so fixed to a vertical staff" as to slide up and down freely ; and let a small piece of board, about three inches square, be nailed to the lower edge of it, for the purpose of holding a candle. About twenty-five minutes before the time of the greatest eastern or western elongation...