## Emergence and Convergence: Qualitative Novelty and the Unity of KnowledgeTwo problems continually arise in the sciences and humanities, according to Mario Bunge: parts and wholes and the origin of novelty. In Along the way, Bunge examines further topical problems, such as the search for the mechanisms underlying observable facts, the limitations of both individualism and holism, the reach of reduction, the abuses of Darwinism, the rational choice-hermeneutics feud, the modularity of the brain vs. the unity of the mind, the cluster of concepts around 'maybe,' the uselessness of many-worlds metaphysics and semantics, the hazards posed by Bayesianism, the nature of partial truth, the obstacles to correct medical diagnosis, and the formal conditions for the emergence of a cross-discipline. Bunge is not interested in idle fantasies, but about many of the problems that occur in any discipline that studies reality or ways to control it. His work is about the merger of initially independent lines of inquiry, such as developmental evolutionary biology, cognitive neuroscience, and socio-economics. Bunge proposes a clear definition of the concept of emergence to replace that of supervenience and clarifies the notions of system, real possibility, inverse problem, interdiscipline, and partial truth that occur in all fields. |

### What people are saying - Write a review

This is an excellent book on Systemic Thinking that deals with any discipline as a whole. It is left to the genius of Bunge to avoid the common pitfalls of thinking. He avoids both reductionist and holistic views and sort of strikes a middle ground or a middle path.

He says that both the forest and the trees are important to look at. We can't choose one for the other. Accordingly, he highlights the limitations of both individualism and holism.

Systemic thinking generally lacks mathematical rigor. Bunge uses modern mathematics to explain the concepts extremely well.

An excellent book that arms a reader to study reality 'as it is' and think of ways to control or change its outcomes.

This book must be considered as a landmark book in the development of Systemic Thinking process.

A must read for anyone interested in serious thinking.

Dibyendu De

dde337@gmail.com

### Contents

Introduction | 3 |

Part and Whole Resultant and Emergent | 9 |

System Emergence and Submergence | 26 |

The Systemic Approach | 40 |

Semiotic and Communication Systems | 53 |

Society and Artefact | 70 |

Theoretical | 82 |

Practical | 97 |

Credibility | 226 |

Probabilistic Epistemology | 228 |

Plausibility or Verisimilitude | 232 |

Towards a Plausibility Calculus | 233 |

Concluding Remarks | 235 |

Emergence of Truth and Convergence to Truth | 237 |

Towards an Exact Concept of Correspondence | 239 |

Partial Truth | 241 |

Three Views of Society | 112 |

Reduction and Reduction ism | 129 |

A Pack of Failed Reductionist Projects | 149 |

Why Integration Succeeds in Social Studies | 168 |

The Case of Mental Functions | 179 |

Connectionism | 183 |

Localization of Mental Functions | 185 |

Functional Interdependence of Neural Modules | 187 |

From Mystery to Scientific Problem | 188 |

Two Convergence Processes | 191 |

Concluding Remarks | 194 |

Rationalchoice Theory and Hermeneutics | 196 |

Divergence and Convergence | 197 |

Methodological Individualism | 199 |

Subjective Process and Observable Behaviour | 201 |

Inverse Problems | 203 |

Figuring Out Mediating Mechanisms | 206 |

The DelinquencyUnemployment Relation | 208 |

Concluding Remarks | 209 |

The Case ofMaybe | 213 |

Logical Possibility | 214 |

Factual Possibility | 217 |

Likelihood | 220 |

Relation between Frequency and Probability | 221 |

Probability Chance and Causation | 223 |

The Emergence of the Knowledge of Truth | 245 |

Truthcentred Ethics and Ideology | 247 |

Concluding Remarks | 249 |

Emergence of Disease and Convergence of the Biomedical Sciences | 250 |

What Kind of Entity Is Disease? | 252 |

Diagnosis as an Inverse Problem | 253 |

Knowledge of Mechanism Strengthens Inference | 256 |

Bayesian Number Juggling | 259 |

Decisiontheoretic Management of Therapy | 261 |

Medicine between Basic Science and Technology | 263 |

Concluding Remarks | 266 |

The Emergence of Convergence and Divergence | 268 |

Convergence | 270 |

Caution against Premature Unification | 272 |

Why Both Processes Are Required | 274 |

Logic and Semantics of Integration | 277 |

Glue | 278 |

Integrated Sciences and Technologies | 280 |

Concluding Remarks | 282 |

GLOSSARY | 285 |

293 | |

315 | |

323 | |

### Other editions - View all

Emergence and Convergence: Qualitative Novelty and the Unity of Knowledge Mario Bunge Limited preview - 2015 |

Emergence and Convergence: Qualitative Novelty and the Unity of Knowledge Mario Bunge No preview available - 2014 |

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### References to this book

The Changing Economic Geography of Globalization: Reinventing Space Giovanna Vertova No preview available - 2006 |