Encyclopedia of Twentieth-century Photography, Volume 1

Front Cover
Lynne Warren
Routledge, 2005 - Photography - 1824 pages
4 Reviews

 Editor’s note

: These definitions err on the side of succinctness and are intended to be beginning points for the

serious student. An attempt to standardize terminology commonly found in the medium of fine arts

photographs that avoids copyrighted term or trade names (‘‘dye-destruction print’’ in lieu of ‘‘Cibachrome’’

and so on) has been made using guidelines set forth by the J. Paul Getty Institute. In acknowledgment of the

increase in collecting vintage prints and the perennial interest in historical processes, many nineteenth

century processes and obsolete terms are included.

Cross referencing within the glossary is indicated by italics; encyclopedia entries are indicated by small

capitals.

Additive colors

The primary colors of red, green and blue which are mixed to form all other colors in photo-

graphic reproduction. See entry

COLOR THEORY: NATURAL AND SYNTHETIC

.

Agfacolor

Trade name for a subtractive color film manufactured by the European company Agfa-Gevaert;

analogous to Kodachrome and Ansocolor.

Albumen print

Prints obtained from a process in wide use during the nineteenth century in which paper is

prepared with an albumen emulsion obtained from egg whites and made light sensitive with a silver nitrate

solution. See also

Collodion process

;

Dry plate processes

.

Amberlith

An orange acetate historically used for masking mechanicals during the process of preparing plates for

commercial printing. The area so masked photographs as black to the camera, printing clear on the

resulting positive film. See also

Rubylith

.

Ambrotype

An image created by the collodion process, historically on glass, which gives the illusion of being

positive when placed against a dark backing, often a layer of black lacquer, paper, or velvet. Also

see

Ferrotype

.

Anamorphic image

An image featuring differing scales of magnification across the picture plane, especially

varying along the vertical and horizontal axes, with the result being extreme distortion.

Aniline

A rapid-drying oil-based solvent used in the preparation of dyes and inks for photographic

applications.

Aniline process

A method of making prints directly from line art (drawings) on translucent materials bypassing

the need for a negative. Also see

Diazo process

.

Aniline printing

See

Flexography

.

Angle of incidence

The measurement in degrees in terms of the deviation from the perpendicular of the angle at

which light hits a surface.

Angle of view

The measurement in degrees of the angle formed by lines projected from the optical center of a lens

to the edges of the field of view. This measurement is used to identify lenses and their appropriateness to

capture various widths or degrees of actual space in a photographic representation, thus an extreme

telephoto lens captures between 6 and 15


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Encyclopedia of twentieth-century photography

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This three-volume encyclopedia, edited by Warren (curator, Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago), surveys photographic history and practice for the last 100 years. The thematic list of more than 500 A ... Read full review

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The most comprehensive photographer / photography 20th century refence book to date. This and the Oxford Companion are a must for every library.

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About the author (2005)

 

Editor’s note

: These definitions err on the side of succinctness and are intended to be beginning points for the

serious student. An attempt to standardize terminology commonly found in the medium of fine arts

photographs that avoids copyrighted term or trade names (‘‘dye-destruction print’’ in lieu of ‘‘Cibachrome’’

and so on) has been made using guidelines set forth by the J. Paul Getty Institute. In acknowledgment of the

increase in collecting vintage prints and the perennial interest in historical processes, many nineteenth

century processes and obsolete terms are included.

Cross referencing within the glossary is indicated by italics; encyclopedia entries are indicated by small

capitals.

Additive colors

The primary colors of red, green and blue which are mixed to form all other colors in photo-

graphic reproduction. See entry

COLOR THEORY: NATURAL AND SYNTHETIC

.

Agfacolor

Trade name for a subtractive color film manufactured by the European company Agfa-Gevaert;

analogous to Kodachrome and Ansocolor.

Albumen print

Prints obtained from a process in wide use during the nineteenth century in which paper is

prepared with an albumen emulsion obtained from egg whites and made light sensitive with a silver nitrate

solution. See also

Collodion process

;

Dry plate processes

.

Amberlith

An orange acetate historically used for masking mechanicals during the process of preparing plates for

commercial printing. The area so masked photographs as black to the camera, printing clear on the

resulting positive film. See also

Rubylith

.

Ambrotype

An image created by the collodion process, historically on glass, which gives the illusion of being

positive when placed against a dark backing, often a layer of black lacquer, paper, or velvet. Also

see

Ferrotype

.

Anamorphic image

An image featuring differing scales of magnification across the picture plane, especially

varying along the vertical and horizontal axes, with the result being extreme distortion.

Aniline

A rapid-drying oil-based solvent used in the preparation of dyes and inks for photographic

applications.

Aniline process

A method of making prints directly from line art (drawings) on translucent materials bypassing

the need for a negative. Also see

Diazo process

.

Aniline printing

See

Flexography

.

Angle of incidence

The measurement in degrees in terms of the deviation from the perpendicular of the angle at

which light hits a surface.

Angle of view

The measurement in degrees of the angle formed by lines projected from the optical center of a lens

to the edges of the field of view. This measurement is used to identify lenses and their appropriateness to

capture various widths or degrees of actual space in a photographic representation, thus an extreme

telephoto lens captures between 6 and 15


 

; normal lens generally fall in the 40 to 100


 

range; a ‘‘fisheye’’

wide-angle is 150 to 200


 

(or more).

Anscocolor

Trade name of a subtractive color film manufactured by the European company GAF Corporation.

Anti-halation layer

The light absorbing layer in raw stock that prevents reflection of light back into the light-

sensitive emulsion, preventing unwanted fogging.

Aristotype

Trade name for a variety of non-albumen printing papers which became a general term; largely

obsolete in the twentieth century.

Artigue process

Variation on the carbon process; largely obsolete in the twentieth century.

Xxvii

 

BOARDOFADVISORS

Deborah Bright

Faculty, Photography, Art  and Architectural History

Rhode Island School of Design

Providence, Rhode Island

Philip Brookman

Senior Curator of Photography and Media Arts

The Corcoran Gallery of Art

Washington, D.C.

Patty Carroll

Photographer

Chicago, Illinois

Alan Cohen

Faculty, Art History, Theory and Criticism

School of The Art Institute of Chicago, Illinois

A.D. Coleman

Critic and Historian of Photography

New York, New York

Linda Connor

Faculty, Photography

San Francisco Art Institute

San Francisco, California

Charles Desmarais

Director

Contemporary Arts Center

Cincinnati, Ohio

Natasha Egan

Curator, Museum of Contemporary Photography

Columbia College

Chicago, Illinois

Lisa K. Erf

Curator of Collections

Bank One

Chicago, Illinois

Marta Gili

Head, Photography Department

Serveis Centrals de la Fundacio

 ́

‘‘la Caixa’’

Barcelona, Spain

iii

Contents

Contributors

xi

Alphabetical List of Entries

xv

Thematic List of Entries

xxi

Glossary

xxvii

Introduction

xxxvii

Entries A to Z

1

Index

I1

ix

CONTRIBUTORS

Bibliographic information