## Energy Conversion Technical BackgroundThe ideal, simple and basic power cycles (Carnot Cycle, Brayton Cycle, Otto Cycle and Diesel Cycle), ideal power cycle components/processes (compression, combustion and expansion) and ideal compressible flow components (subsonic nozzle, diffuser and thrust) are presented in this technical background material. In the presented power cycles, power cycle components/processes and compressible flow analysis, air is used as the working fluid. For each power cycle thermal efficiency derivation is presented with a simple mathematical approach. Also, for each power cycle, a T - s diagram and power cycle major performance trends (thermal efficiency, specific power output and power output) are plotted in a few figures as a function of compression ratio, turbine inlet temperature and/or final combustion temperature and working fluid mass flow rate. It should be noted that this technical background material does not deal with costs (capital, operational or maintenance). For compression and expansion, the technical performance of mentioned power cycle components/processes is presented with a given relationship between pressure and temperature. While for combustion, the technical performance at stoichiometric conditions is presented knowing the enthalpy values for combustion reactants and products, given as a function of temperature. This technical background material provides the compression and expansion T - s diagrams and their major performance trends plotted in a few figures as a function of compression and expansion ratio values and working fluid mass flow rate. For each combustion case considered, combustion products composition on both weight and mole basis is given in tabular form and plotted in a few figures. Also, flame temperature, stoichiometric oxidant to fuel ratio and fuel higher heating value (HHV) are presented in tabular form and plotted in a few figures. The provided output data and plots allow one to determine the major combustion performance laws and trends. For subsonic nozzle, diffuser and thrust, the technical performance of mentioned compressible flow components is presented with a given relationship between temperature and pressure as a function of the Mach Number. This technical background material provides the compressible flow components T - s diagrams and their major performance trends (stagnation over static temperature and pressure ratio values) are plotted in a few figures as a function of the Mach Number. In this technical background material, one gets familiar with the ideal simple and basic power cycles, power cycle components/processes and compressible flow component and their T - s and h - T diagrams, operation and major performance trends. |

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### Contents

3 | |

8 | |

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10 | |

Conclusions | 11 |

Brayton Cycle for Power Application | 12 |

Assumptions | 19 |

Governing Equations | 20 |

Figures | 62 |

Conclusions | 69 |

Expansion | 70 |

Assumptions | 73 |

Governing Equations | 74 |

Conclusions | 76 |

Nozzle | 77 |

Assumptions | 80 |

Input Data | 21 |

Conclusions | 23 |

Otto Cycle | 24 |

Assumptions | 29 |

Governing Equations | 30 |

Results | 31 |

Conclusions | 32 |

Diesel Cycle | 33 |

Assumptions | 41 |

Governing Equations | 42 |

Input Data | 43 |

Conclusions | 45 |

Compression | 46 |

Assumptions | 49 |

Governing Equations | 50 |

Conclusions | 52 |

Combustion | 53 |

Assumptions | 58 |

Governing Equations | 59 |

Input Data | 60 |

Results | 61 |

Governing Equations | 81 |

Results | 82 |

Conclusions | 83 |

Diffuser | 84 |

Assumptions | 87 |

Governing Equations | 88 |

Results | 89 |

Conclusions | 90 |

Thrust | 91 |

Assumptions | 94 |

Governing Equations | 95 |

Results | 96 |

Conclusions | 97 |

Physical Properties Single Species Approach | 98 |

Assumptions | 99 |

Governing Equations | 100 |

Input Data | 102 |

Results | 103 |

Engineering Formulas | 104 |