Energy Conversion Technical Background

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Engineering Software

The ideal, simple and basic power cycles (Carnot Cycle, Brayton Cycle, Otto Cycle and Diesel Cycle), ideal power cycle components/processes (compression, combustion and expansion) and ideal compressible flow components (subsonic nozzle, diffuser and thrust) are presented in this technical background material.  In the presented power cycles, power cycle components/processes and compressible flow analysis, air is used as the working fluid. 

For each power cycle thermal efficiency derivation is presented with a simple mathematical approach.  Also, for each power cycle, a T - s diagram and power cycle major performance trends (thermal efficiency, specific power output and power output) are plotted in a few figures as a function of compression ratio, turbine inlet temperature and/or final combustion temperature and working fluid mass flow rate.  It should be noted that this technical background material does not deal with costs (capital, operational or maintenance). 

For compression and expansion, the technical performance of mentioned power cycle components/processes is presented with a given relationship between pressure and temperature.  While for combustion, the technical performance at stoichiometric conditions is presented knowing the enthalpy values for combustion reactants and products, given as a function of temperature.  This technical background material provides the compression and expansion T - s diagrams and their major performance trends plotted in a few figures as a function of compression and expansion ratio values and working fluid mass flow rate.  For each combustion case considered, combustion products composition on both weight and mole basis is given in tabular form and plotted in a few figures.  Also, flame temperature, stoichiometric oxidant to fuel ratio and fuel higher heating value (HHV) are presented in tabular form and plotted in a few figures.  The provided output data and plots allow one to determine the major combustion performance laws and trends. 

For subsonic nozzle, diffuser and thrust, the technical performance of mentioned compressible flow components is presented with a given relationship between temperature and pressure as a function of the Mach Number.  This technical background material provides the compressible flow components T - s diagrams and their major performance trends (stagnation over static temperature and pressure ratio values) are plotted in a few figures as a function of the Mach Number. 

In this technical background material, one gets familiar with the ideal simple and basic power cycles, power cycle components/processes and compressible flow component and their T - s and h - T diagrams, operation and major performance trends.

 

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Contents

Carnot Cycle
3
Assumptions
8
Governing Equations
9
Results
10
Conclusions
11
Brayton Cycle for Power Application
12
Assumptions
19
Governing Equations
20
Figures
62
Conclusions
69
Expansion
70
Assumptions
73
Governing Equations
74
Conclusions
76
Nozzle
77
Assumptions
80

Input Data
21
Conclusions
23
Otto Cycle
24
Assumptions
29
Governing Equations
30
Results
31
Conclusions
32
Diesel Cycle
33
Assumptions
41
Governing Equations
42
Input Data
43
Conclusions
45
Compression
46
Assumptions
49
Governing Equations
50
Conclusions
52
Combustion
53
Assumptions
58
Governing Equations
59
Input Data
60
Results
61
Governing Equations
81
Results
82
Conclusions
83
Diffuser
84
Assumptions
87
Governing Equations
88
Results
89
Conclusions
90
Thrust
91
Assumptions
94
Governing Equations
95
Results
96
Conclusions
97
Physical Properties Single Species Approach
98
Assumptions
99
Governing Equations
100
Input Data
102
Results
103
Engineering Formulas
104
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