Energy and Water Development Appropriations for 1986: Hearings Before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Appropriations, House of Representatives, Ninety-ninth Congress, First Session, Volume 7

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Page 544 - Naval nuclear-powered ships and their support facilities has been less than 0.001 curie per year for all harbors combined. Fallout of these same fission products has often been more than this in one rainfall in a single harbor.
Page 545 - ... issued by the International Commission on Radiological Protection, the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and by other standard-setting organizations is one hundred times higher for tritium than for cobalt 60.
Page 548 - RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL During maintenance and overhaul operations, solid lowlevel radioactive wastes consisting of contaminated rags, plastic bags, paper, filters, ion exchange resin and scrap materials are collected by nuclear-powered ships and their support facilities. These low level radioactive materials from nuclear-powered ships are required to be strictly controlled to prevent loss.
Page 545 - Releases at Sea Radioactive liquids incidental to the operation of the nuclear propulsion plants are released at sea under strict controls. These ocean releases are consistent with recommendations the Council on Environmental Quality made in 1970 to the President in reference 25, and consistent with the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act, reference 26.
Page 556 - At least five water samples are taken in each harbor once each quarter year in areas where nuclear-powered ships berth and from upstream and downstream locations. These samples are analyzed for gross gamma radioactivity and for cobalt 60 content. A...
Page 540 - Discharges of radioactivity from ships occur primarily when reactor coolant water expands as a result of being heated to operating temperature; this coolant passes through a purification system ion exchange resin bed prior to being transferred from the ship. The principal source of radioactivity in liquid wastes is from trace amounts of corrosion and wear products from reactor plant metal surfaces in contact with reactor cooling water. Radionuclides with half -lives greater than one day in these...
Page 571 - Cobalt 60 is not detectable above background levels in general harbor bottom areas away from these piers. Maximum total radioactivity observed in a US harbor is less than 0.05 curie of cobalt 60. This radioactivity is small compared to background. Based...
Page 543 - Reactor coolant also contains short-lived radionuclides with half-lives of seconds to hours. Their highest concentrations in reactor coolant are from nitrogen 16 (7 second half-life) , nitrogen 13 (10 minute half-life), fluorine 18 (1.8 hour half-life), argon 41 (1.8 hour half-life) and manganese 56 (2.6 hour half-life).
Page 631 - In progress inside an area such as a reactor compartment. Airborne radioactivity surveys are required to be performed regularly in radioactive work areas. Any time airborne radioactivity above the limit Is detected in occupied areas, work which might be causing airborne radioactivity is stopped. This conservative action is taken to minimize internal radioactivity even though the Navy's airborne radioactivity limit would allow continuous breathing for forty hours per week throughout the year to reach...

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