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INTRODUCTION 1 Why Study Engineering Surveys?
Uses of Surveys
Factors Controlling Surveys
378 other sections not shown
approximate probable error azimuth B.Ms bubble tube celestial sphere clinometer compass computed contour corners curvature declination degree determined difference in elevation dumpy level eliminated engineering errors of adjustment exactly example eyepiece feet long field notes foot footscrews formula frequently Geodetic Survey graduations ground horizontal angle horizontal axis horizontal cross-hair horizontal distance inch instrument latitude least count line of sight magnetic bearing magnetic declination measured ment meridian method minutes moved nearest necessary needle reading objective lens obtained ordinary parallax plane plate bubbles plumb bob Polaris position precise procedure pull rear tapeman refraction rod reading sag correction scale screws set-up shown in Fig sketch slope stadia stake station steel tape surveyor tangent taping pins target telescope bubble temperature tion transit transitman traverse triangulation tripod true length true north two-peg test usually vernier versine vertical angle vertical axis vertical cross-hair zero