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The First Law of Thermodynamics
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adiabatic analysis assumed atmospheric boiler boundary layer Calculate Carnot cycle closed system coefficient of performance combustion compression compressor condenser considered constant volume convection cooling curve cycle efficiency cylinder defined dryness fraction energy equation engine enthalpy enthalpy drop entropy equal equilibrium example expansion expressed fluid friction ft/s fuel gases given heat exchanger heat flow heat transfer coefficient hence increase inlet and outlet internal energy irreversible isentropic efficiency isothermal isothermal process kinetic energy liquid mass flow mean effective pressure mixture moles nozzle Nusselt obtained open system p-v diagram perfect gas piston plant polytropic process pressure and temperature pressure ratio quantity of heat radiation Rankine cycle rate of heat reaction refrigeration reservoirs rotor saturated Second Law shown in Fig specific heat specific volume stage steady-flow process steam superheat surface temperature difference throttling tube turbulent velocity wall water vapour zero