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RESEARCH 14 FOR FURTHER READING 15
DESCRIPTION 16 2 3 COGNATE LANGUAGES 19 2 4 EVI
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abstract formation abstract noun accent adjective agent nouns apophony appear back to Gmc back to Lat back to OE bahuvrihi basic became belonging borrowing from Latin cognate compound consonant group consonantal dental derived dialects diphthongs drawn etymological dictionaries etymological research formation pattern forms full-grade gemination Germanic languages goes back Greek Indo-European initial lengthening lexical items linguistic loanwords long vowel meaning ModE monophthongized mutation nasal o-grade o-stems occurred Old English Old French originally paradigm phonemes phonological plural polysemy position present pret preterite preterite-present verbs probably reconstruction represents root Gmc root IE root vowel Sanskrit Scandinavian second element semivowels shift shortened singular spelling starting-point stress strong verbs suffix syllable thematic unstressed Vater verbal root Verner's Law vocalism voiced aspirated stop voiced spirants voiced stop voiceless spirants voiceless stop Vowel Shift vrddhi-formation weak verbs WGmc whereas word word-formation XVII zero-grade