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1 What is the problem?
What should we do about it? 129
9 Can we help the children toward literacy? 146
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African languages ain't Americans attitudes auxiliary basic rule become bidialectalism black children black community black English black separatism black slang black speakers black speech Bostonian chapter child colloquial complex contrast variability correct Creoles creolization dialects differ dialects of English difficulty distinct examples feel final consonants flip-flop forms of English ghetto give grammar homophones imagine Labov language deprivation learn to read linguistic loss lost lower class children means middle class middle class blacks multiple negation negative nonstandard dialect nonstandard English nonstandard speakers nonstandard-speaking northern omit patterns pidgin plural poor prestige problem pronounced pronunciation rhyme right-copy rule right-shift rule sentences simply social sometimes sound variability southern speak standard English spelling spoken standard English standard speakers stigmatized style suffix talk teacher tense third person singular tion toasts understand usually varied verb verbal skills vocabulary vowel West African wh questions white speakers word variability