English on the Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands
Many inhabitants of the Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands in the northwestern Pacific Ocean speak a mixture of English and Japanese that resulted from the islands' unique and complicated history. The development of Bonin English began with the arrival--on previously uninhabited islands--of men and women speaking eighteen European and Austronesian languages in the early nineteenth century. As the islanders intermixed, their native languages intertwining, the need arose for a common language and shared means of communication. Eventually, a pidgin version of English--a language once merely one among the islanders' languages--emerged as the preferred method of communication as well as a strong symbol of island identity. As Bonin English developed among second- and third-generation islanders, it was further complicated by the arrival of thousands of Japanese speakers. Increasingly, these formerly "western" islanders became bilingual, and by the mid-twentieth century Bonin English had evolved to incorporate elements of Japanese. This volume provides a comprehensive overview of Bonin English and the complex sociolinguistic factors that have influenced its endurance and metamorphosis.
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Language Varieties Used on the Bonins
English during the Early
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acrolectal American arrival basilectal bilingual Bonin Creoloid English Bonin English Bonin Islands born Chamorro chapter Charlie's Chichijima code-switching contact languages contact varieties creole creolization dialects diglossia early English and Japanese English words English-based ethnic ethnic-Japanese example factors first-generation settlers fish Gilley grammatical guage Guam gurai Hachijo Hahajima Hawaiian identity influence interviews Irene Japa Japanese and English Japanese language Joseph Gonzales language contact language varieties lexemes lexical linguistic lived mainland Japan mainstream English mainstream varieties mixed language mother Nathaniel Savory nese nineteenth century nonnative nonstandard Ogasawara Islands Ogasawara Mixed Language original Pacific contact Pacific Islander Palmerston phonological Pidgin English Pitcairn Pitcairn-Norfolk Polynesian postwar OML prewar pronouns pronunciation Saipan sentence shepardson ships speak speech spoken standard English standard Japanese tion Tokyo Trudgill twentieth century U.S. English U.S. Navy Uncle Charlie unique usage varieties of English verb vowel Webb Westerners