Enlightenment Contested: Philosophy, Modernity, and the Emancipation of Man 1670-1752

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OUP Oxford, 12 oct. 2006 - 983 pages
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List of Plates p. xviii List of Figures p. xx Abbreviations of Library and Archive Locations p. xxi Other Abbreviations p. xxiii Part I Introductory 1 Early Enlightenment, Revolution, and the Modern Age p. 3 1 Ancien Regime and Revolution p. 3 2 Historians and the Writing of 'Intellectual History' p. 15 3 L'Esprit philosophique p. 26 2 Philosophy and the Making of Modernity p. 43 1 Spinoza and Spinozism in the Radical Enlightenment p. 43 2 Locke, Hume, and the Making of Modernity p. 51 Part II The Crisis of Religious Authority 3 Faith and Reason: Bayle versus the Rationaux p. 63 1 Europe's Religious Crisis p. 63 2 Consensus gentium and the Philosophes p. 71 3 Voltaire and the Eclipse of Bayle p. 85 4 Demolishing Priesthood, Ancient and Modern p. 94 5 Socinianism and the Social, Psychological, and Cultural Roots of Enlightenment p. 115 6 Locke, Bayle, and Spinoza: A Contest of Three Toleration Doctrines p. 135 1 Toleration from Locke to Barbeyrac p. 135 2 Bayle's Freedom of Conscience p. 145 3 Spinoza's Liberty of Thought and Expression p. 155 7 Germany and the Baltic: Enlightenment, Society, and the Universities p. 164 1 The Problem of 'Atheism' p. 164 2 Academic Disputations and the Making of German Radical Thought p. 175 3 An Alternative Route? Johann Lorenz Schmidt and 'Left' Wolffian Radicalism p. 188 4 Natural Theology, Natural Law, and the Radical Challenge p. 194 8 Newtonianism and Anti-Newtonianism in the Early Enlightenment: Science, Philosophy, and Religion p. 201 1 English Physico-theology p. 201 2 From 's-Gravesande to d'Alembert (1720-1750) p. 215 Part III Political Emancipation 9 Anti-Hobbesianism and the Making of 'Modernity' p. 225 10 The Origins of Modern Democratic Republicanism p. 240 1 Classical Republicanism versus Democratic Republicanism p. 240 2 Democracy in Radical Thought p. 249 11 Bayle, Boulainvilliers, Montesquieu: Secular Monarchy versus the Aristocratic Republic p. 264 1 Bayle's Politics p. 264 2 Early Enlightenment French Political Thought p. 278 3 The Ideal of Mixed Monarchy p. 287 12 'Enlightened Despotism': Autocracy, Faith, and Enlightenment in Eastern and South-Eastern Europe (1689-1755) p. 295 1 Peter the Great's 'Revolution' (1689-1725) p. 295 2 Europe and the Russian Enlightenment (1725-1755) p. 309 3 Locke, Newton, and Leibniz in the Greek Cultural Diaspora p. 317 13 Popular Sovereignty, Resistance, and the 'Right to Revolution' p. 326 14 Anglomania, Anglicisme, and the 'British Model' p. 344 1 English Deism and the Recoil from Radicalism p. 344 2 French Anglicisme p. 356 3 Anglicisme and Anti-anglicisme in the Mid Eighteenth Century p. 364 15 The Triumph of the 'Moderate Enlightenment' in the United Provinces p. 372 1 The Defeat of Dutch Radical Thought: The Social Context p. 372 2 Intellectual Realignment within the Huguenot Diaspora p. 386 3 The Orangist Restoration (1747-1751) p. 396 Part IV Intellectual Emancipation 16 The Overthrow of Humanist Criticism p. 409 1 Ars critica p. 409 2 Secularization of the Sacred p. 421 3 Man and Myth p. 427 17 The Recovery of Greek Thought p. 436 1 'Rationalizing the Gods': Disputing Xenophanes p. 436 2 Strato, Spinoza, and the Philosophes p. 444 3 Spinozism: A Reworking of Greek Stoicism? p. 457 18 The Rise of 'History of Philosophy' p. 471 1 Pre-Enlightenment 'History of Philosophy' p. 471 2 German Eclecticism and the Rise of a New Discipline p. 476 3 'Radical Renaissance' p. 481 19 From 'History of Philosophy' to History of l'Esprit humain p. 496 1 Fontenelle, Boulainvilliers, and 'l'histoire de l'esprit humain' p. 496 2 Diderot and the History of Human Thought p. 504 20 Italy, the Two Enlightenments, and Vico's 'New Science' p. 513 1 Italy Embraces the Mainstream Enlightenment p. 513 2 Vico's 'Divine Providence' p. 528 3 A Restored Italo-Greek Wisdom? p. 537 Part V The Party of Humanity 21 The Problem of Equality p. 545 1 Enlightenment and Basic Equality p. 545 2 Aristocracy, Radical Thought, and Educational Reform p. 563 22 Sex, Marriage, and the Equality of Women p. 572 1 Cartesianism and Female Equality p. 572 2 Marriage, Chastity, and Prostitution p. 576 3 The Erotic Emancipation of Woman, and Man p. 582 23 Race, Radical Thought, and the Advent of Anti-colonialism p. 590 1 Enlightenment against Empire p. 590 2 Slavery and the Early Enlightenment p. 603 3 Empire and National Identity p. 609 24 Rethinking Islam: Philosophy and the 'Other' p. 615 1 Islam and Toleration p. 615 2 Bayle and Ibn Rushd (Averroes) p. 620 3 Ibn Tufayl and the Hidden Wisdom of the East p. 628 4 The Clandestine 'Enlightenment' of the Zindikites p. 631 25 Spinoza, Confucius, and Classical Chinese Philosophy p. 640 1 China and Spinozismus ante Spinozam p. 640 2 Leibniz, Wolff, and Chinese prisca theologia p. 652 3 Voltaire, Montesquieu, and China p. 657 26 Is Religion Needed for a Well-Ordered Society? p. 663 1 Separating Morality from Theology p. 663 2 'Moderate' Enlightenment Deist Morality p. 681 3 Radical Thought and the Construction of a Secular Morality p. 692 Part VI Radical Philosophes 27 The French Enlightenment Prior to Voltaire's Lettres philosophiques (1734) p. 699 1 The Post-1715 Reaction to Absolutism p. 699 2 The Materialist Challenge p. 712 3 Clandestinity p. 722 28 Men, Animals, Plants, and Fossils: French Hylozoic Materialisme before Diderot p. 733 29 Realigning the Parti philosophique: Voltaire, Voltairianisme, Antivoltairianisme (1732-1745) p. 751 1 Voltaire's Enlightenment p. 751 2 The Defeat of Voltaire and the French 'Newtonians' p. 762 3 Breakdown of the Lockean-Newtonian Synthesis p. 772 30 From Voltaire to Diderot p. 781 31 The 'Unvirtuous Atheist' p. 794 1 The 'Affaire La Mettrie' (1745-1752) p. 794 2 Atheistic Amoralism p. 803 32 The Parti philosophique Embraces the Radical Enlightenment p. 814 1 Radicalization of the Diderot Circle p. 814 2 The 'Quarrel' of the Esprit des lois (1748-1752) p. 824 33 The 'War of the Encyclopedie': The First Stage (1746-1752) p. 840 34 Postscript p. 863 Bibliography p. 872 Index p. 955.
 

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Table des matières

THE CRISIS OF RELIGIOUS AUTHORITY
61
POLITICAL EMANCIPATION
223
INTELLECTUAL EMANCIPATION
407
THE PARTY OF HUMANITY
543
RADICAL PHILOSOPHES
697
Bibliography
872
Index
955
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À propos de l'auteur (2006)


Jonathan Israel is Professor of Modern European History, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton.

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