Environment, Power, and Injustice: A South African History

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Cambridge University Press, Jun 26, 2003 - History - 300 pages
This book presents the socio-environmental history of black people around Kuruman, on the edge of the Kalahari in South Africa. Considering successive periods--Tswana agropastoral chiefdoms before colonial contact, the Cape frontier, British colonial rule, Apartheid, and the homeland of Bophuthatswana in the 1980s--Environment, Power and Injustice shows how the human relationship with the environment corresponded to differences of class, gender, and race. While exploring biological, geological, and climatological forces in history, this book argues that the challenges of existence in a semidesert arose more from human injustice than from deficiencies in the natural environment. In fact, powerful people drew strength from and exercised their power over others through the environment. At the same time, the natural world provided marginal peoples with some relief from human injustice. Nancy J. Jacobs is Assistant Professor in the Department of Africana Studies and the Department of History at Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, USA. She is a recipient of the Alice Hamilton article prize from the American Society for Environmental History.
 

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An extraordinary exercise in interdisciplinary scholarship, this book was a tough read. This is strange because the writing is lucid and the themes add new perspective on how the state took land and ... Read full review

Contents

APPROACHING KURUMAN
1
A TOUR
4
A SOCIOENVIRONMENTAL APPROACH
16
DOING SOCIOENVIRONMENTAL HISTORY IN KURUMAN
21
THE FRONTIER COLONIALISM AND SEGREGATION
28
GOAT PEOPLE AND FISH PEOPLE ON THE AGROPASTORAL FRONTIER c 17501830
32
GOAT PEOPLE AND FISH PEOPLE BECOME TLHAPING
33
THE ECOLOGICAL CYCLE IN AN AGROPASTORAL SOCIETY
39
EXTENSIVE CULTIVATION AND CASUAL IRRIGATION ON RESERVES
129
SELLING LABOR FOR WAGES AND OTHER REMUNERATION
133
IF WE WERE ALL EQUAL THERE WOULD BE NO COOPERATION
141
APPORTIONING WATER DIVIDING LAND SEGREGATION 19101977
148
ENVIRONMENTAL RIGHTS OF TRIBAL SUBJECTS
149
THE WHITES OF THE EYE
151
SEGREGATION OF THE FLOWING EYE
153
EXTENSIVE AGRICULTURE MEETS AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION
158

A PROPITIOUS FOOD SOURCE
43
SOCIAL POWER AND THE ECOLOGICAL CYCLE
45
SHIFTING CULTIVATION AS EXTENSIVE PRODUCTION
49
CULTIVATION A SPHERE OF FEMALE AUTONOMY
52
ENVIRONMENT PRODUCTION AND CLASS AND GENDER
56
INTENSIFICATION AND SOCIAL INNOVATION ON THE CAPE FRONTIER 1820s1884
57
AFRICAN INITIATIVE IN RIVER VALLEYS
66
PROFIT AND EXTENSIVE PRODUCTION
70
THE SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS OF IRRIGATION AND COMMERCE
72
AN ECOLOGICAL REVOLUTION?
75
COLONIAL ANNEXATION LAND ALIENATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL ADMINISTRATION 18841894
76
CHANGING CUSTOMS OF TENURE ON THE CAPE FRONTIER
79
THE SCRAMBLE FOR KURUMAN
81
THE BRITISH BECHUANALAND LAND COMMISSION AND THE ALIENATION OF PASTURES
83
THE BRITISH BECHUANALAND LAND COMMISSION AND LAND TENURE
87
LAND DISPUTES UNDER DIRECT RULE
89
DIRECT RULE AND ENVIRONMENTAL ADMINISTRATION
91
WORKING THE LAND AND WORKING FOR CASH
92
COLONIAL ENVIRONMENTAL ADMINISTRATION
95
ENVIRONMENTAL TRAUMA COLONIAL RULE AND THE FAILURE OF EXTENSIVE FOOD PRODUCTION 18951903
96
EPIZOOTIC AND VIOLENCE 18951897
101
FOOD SHORTAGE AND FAMINE
106
WAGE LABOR AND GOVERNMENT INTERVENTION DURING THE 1903 FAMINE
111
ENTITLEMENTS UNDER COLONIAL RULE
116
THE ENVIRONMENTAL HISTORY OF A LABOR RESERVOIR 19031970s
117
POPULATION AND PRODUCTION
118
BROWSERS AND GRAZERS IN A BUSHIER VELD
120
ESCHEWING THE TRUST
162
REMOVALS FROM BLACK SPOTS AND WHITE FARMS 19431963
164
SEPARATE DEVELOPMENT AND REMOVALS 19631977
169
ENVIRONMENTAL HISTORY AND RACIAL SEGREGATION
172
BETTERMENT AND THE BOPHUTHATSWANA DONKEY MASSACRE THE ENVIRONMENTAL RIGHTS OF TRIBAL SUBJECTS 1940s1983
173
INDIRECT RULE AND ENVIRONMENTAL RIGHTS
174
THE IDEOLOGY OF BETTERMENT IN THE THORNVELD
177
REDEVELOPING THE LANDSCAPE
180
HINDERING SUBSISTENCE PROMOTING COMMERCIAL PRODUCTION
185
EVIDENCE FROM ABOVE
189
THE GREAT BOPHUTHATSWANA DONKEY MASSACRE
195
COERCION AND CONSERVATION
204
RETROSPECTIVE ON SOCIOENVIRONMENTAL HISTORY AND SOCIOENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE
206
HISTORIES OF DECLINE AND ADAPTATION
207
THE ENDURANCE OF EXTENSIVE PRODUCTION
209
INDIGENOUS THEORIES OF ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE
210
SOCIOENVIRONMENTAL HISTORY AND SOCIOENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE
217
SOUTH AFRICAN CENSUS STATISTICS ON HUMAN POPULATION
223
SOUTH AFRICAN CENSUS STATISTICS ON STOCK POPULATION
226
1991 INDIVIDUAL INTERVIEWS
228
19971998 INDIVIDUAL INTERVIEWS
230
1991 AND 19971998 GROUP INTERVIEWS
232
A NOTE ON ARCHIVAL SOURCES
235
NOTES
239
INDEX
293
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About the author (2003)

Nancy J. Jacobs is Assistant Professor in the Department of African Studies and the Department of History at Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, USA. She is a recipient of the Alice Hamilton article prize from the American Society for Environmental History.

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