Environmental Micropaleontology: The Application of Microfossils to Environmental Geology

Front Cover
Ronald E. Martin
Springer Science & Business Media, Jul 31, 2000 - Science - 481 pages
Microfossils are ideally suited to environmental studies because their short generation times allow them to respond rapidly to environmental change. This book represents an assessment of the progress made in environmental micropalaeontology and sets out future research directions. The taxa studied are mainly foraminifera, but include arcellaceans, diatoms, dinoflagellates, and ostracodes. The papers themselves range from reviews of applications of particular taxa to specific case studies.
 

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Contents

Introduction
1
When Does Environmental Variability Become Environmental Change? The Proxy Record of Benthic Foraminifera
7
2 The Concept of Environmental Change
9
4 Methods
11
5 Modern Examples of Environmental Variability and Change
12
6 Experiments
29
7 Rate of Response
30
8 Is It Possible to Predict the Consequences of Change?
31
Chemical Ecology of Foraminifera Parameters of Health Environmental Pathology and Assessment of Environmental Quality
217
2 Chemical Ecology of Foraminifera
218
3 Antixenobiotic Defense Mechanisms and Environmental Health of Foraminifera
236
4 Conclusions
246
References
247
Use of Arcellacea Thecamoebians to Gauge Levels of Contamination and Remediation in Industrially Polluted Lakes
257
2 Taxonomy and Biology
258
3 Paleoecological Utility
259

9 The Importance of Baseline Studies for Monitoring Environmental Change
32
10 Summary and Conclusions
34
References
35
Distribution Trends of Foraminiferal Assemblages in Paralic Environments A Base for Using Foraminifera as Bioindicators
39
1 Introduction
40
2 Paralic Environments
41
3 Study Areas
42
4 Materials and Methods
49
5 Results
50
6 Discussion
60
7 Conclusion
63
References
64
Water Quality in Modern Marine Marginal Marine and Freshwater Environments
69
Benthic Foraminifera as Bioindicators of Heavy Metal Pollution A Case Study from the Goro Lagoon Italy
71
2 Environmental Setting
73
3 Material and Methods
74
4 Results and Discussion
77
5 Conclusions
97
AppendixFaunal List
100
Impact of Anthropogenic Environmental Change on Larger Foraminifera Tarawa Atoll Kiribati South Pacific
105
2 Physical Setting
107
3 Human Changes to the Environment
108
4 Methods of Study
109
6 Discussion and Conclusion
115
References
117
Larger Foraminifera as Indicators of CoralReef Vitality
121
2 Analogies and Differences between Foraminifera and Corals
124
3 Potential Application of Foraminifera to Reef Studies
131
4 Larger Foraminifera and Global Change
143
5 Summary
144
References
145
Ostracoda in Detection of Sewage Discharge on a Pacific Atoll
151
2 Setting
152
3 Methods
153
4 Ostracodes
154
5 Discussion
159
6 Summary
161
7 Appendix List of SamplesLocalities
162
References
164
Ostracodes as Indicators of River Pollution in Northern Israel
167
2 Materials and Methods
168
3 Results and Discussion
171
4 Conclusions
179
References
180
Ostracoda as Indicators of Conditions and Dynamics of Water Ecosystems
181
2 Notes on Methodology
182
4 Lacustrine and Subterranean Ostracodes
185
References
186
Environmental Variation and Foraminiferal Test Abnormalities
191
1 Introduction
192
3 Material and Methods
197
4 Results
202
5 Discussion
207
6 Conclusion
211
4 Analytical Methods
261
5 Case Studies
263
6 Summary
274
Sedimentary Diatoms and Chrysophytes as Indicators of Lakewater Quality in North America
279
2 Field and Laboratory Methods
282
3 Qualitative Assessment of Water Quality
284
4 Developing Surface Sediment Calibration Training Data Sets
289
5 Historical Assessments of Environmental Change
295
6 Regional Assessments
297
7 Conclusions
299
References
301
Dinoflagellate Cysts as Indicators of Cultural Eutrophication and Industrial Pollution in Coastal Sediments
305
2 Cultural Eutrophication in the Oslofjord
308
3 Industrial Pollution in the Frierfjord
311
4 Discussion
316
5 Future Work
318
6 Taxonomic Note
319
References
320
Environmental Stratigraphy A Case Study Reconstructing Bottom Water Oxygen Conditions in Frierfjord Norway over the Past Five Centuries
323
1 Introduction
324
2 Area Description and Discharge History
325
3 Material and Methods
328
4 Results
330
5 Discussion
338
6 Summary and Conclusions
346
References
347
Foraminifera of StormGenerated Washover Fans Implications for Determining Storm Frequency in Relation to Sediment Supply and Barrier Island E...
351
2 Methods
352
3 Results and Discussion
359
4 Conclusions
367
References
368
Benthic Foraminiferal Distributions in South Florida Analogues to Historical Changes
371
2 Setting
372
3 Methodology
373
4 Results
374
References
382
Variation in Natural vs Anthropogenic Eutrophication of Shelf Areas in Front of Major Rivers
385
2 Eutrophication of Shelf Ecosystems
386
3 Foraminiferal Assemblages from RiverDominated Shelf Systems
391
4 Indicator Species of Organic Pollution in Shelf Areas
395
5 Natural vs Anthropogenic Signal
397
References
402
Establishing a Hydrostratigraphic Framework Using Palynology An Example from the Savannah river Site South Carolina
407
2 Previous Palynological Work at the Savannah River Site
410
3 Savannah River Site Hydrogeology and Palynological Stratigraphy
411
4 Conclusions
425
Construction of the Thames Barrier An Application of Micropaleontology to the Solution of an Environmental Problem
429
2 Geological Problems
432
3 The Site Investigation Process
435
4 Construction of the Barrier
451
5 The Future
454
References
456
Index
461
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