Environmental Systems Engineering and Economics

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Springer Science & Business Media, 2004 - Business & Economics - 468 pages
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Environmental Systems Engineering and Economics emphasizes the application of optimization, economics, and systems engineering to problems in environmental resources management. This senior level/graduate textbook introduces optimization theory and algorithms that have been successful in resolving water quality and groundwater management problems. Both linear programming and nonlinear optimization are presented. Multiobjective optimization and the linked simulation-optimization (LSO) methodology are also introduced. The basic principles of economics and engineering economics are also discussed to provide a framework for economic decision making. This text contains numerous example problems. Case studies are presented that address water resources management issues in the north China plain, the control of saltwater intrusion in Jakarta, Indonesia, and groundwater resources management in the Yun Lin basin, Taiwan.
 

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Contents

1 Introduction to Environmental Systems Engineering
xii
12 Systems Engineering
1
13 Mathematical Models
3
14 The Systems Engineering Problems
6
16 The Model Building Process
10
17 Simulation Modeling
14
18 Optimization Modeling
15
References
30
6131 Changes in the Cost Coefficients
261
6132 Changes in the Coefficient Matrix
263
6133 Changes in the Constant Vector
264
614 LargeScale Linear Programming Models
265
6142 Matrix Generators and MPS Data
266
6143 Computational Efficiency
269
615 Case Study 1 Groundwater Planning
276
6152 Groundwater Optimization Model
277

Problems
31
2 An Introduction to Optimization Theory
36
22 Classification of Optimization Models
37
23 Geometry of the Mathematical Optimization Problem
43
24 Nonlinear Optimization and Types of Maxima
45
25 Convex Sets and Functions
47
26 Weierstrass Theorem
56
27 The LocalGlobal Theorem
57
28 The KuhnTucker Conditions
60
29 The KuhnTucker Theorem
70
210 Interpretation of the Lagrange Multipliers
74
211 The Saddle Point Problem
75
212 Maximin Dual Problem
77
References
80
Problems
81
Theory of Production
88
32 The Competitive Economy
89
33 The Production Function
90
34 Theory of the Firm
95
35 Maximum Output Model
97
36 Production Optimization
101
361 Cost Functions
102
362 Externalities
106
37 Comparative Statistics of the Firm
108
38 Public Project Evaluation
114
39 Case Study 1 Agricultural Benefits
121
392 Economic Model
122
393 Model Results and Conclusions
123
References
125
Problems
126
Theory of the Household
132
42 Commodity Space and Preference Relations
133
43 Theory of the Household
135
44 Comparative Statics
139
45 General Equilibrium
142
451 Classical General Equilibrium
144
452 Neoclassical General Equilibrium
150
46 Market Equilibrium
151
References
156
Problems
157
5 Engineering Economics
160
52 The Time Value of Money
161
53 Engineering Economic Formulas
163
54 Evaluation of Alternatives
175
55 Present Worth Method
176
56 Annual Worth Method
180
57 Benefit Cost Ratio
182
58 Internal Rate of Return
184
59 Depreciation and Income Tax Analysis
186
591 Depreciation Methods
187
592 Pre1981 Depreciation Methods
188
510 Inflation
190
References
193
Problems
194
6 Linear Programming
204
62 Optimality of Linear Programming Problems
216
63 Standard Form
217
64 Basic and Basic Feasible Solutions
220
65 The Simplex Algorithm
223
66 The Simplex Tableau
231
67 The TwoPhase Method
236
68 General Summary of the Simplex Algorithm
241
69 Duality
246
610 Matrix Representation of the Simplex Method
253
611 Economic Interpretation of the Dual Problem
256
612 The Revised Simplex Method
258
613 Sensitivity Analysis
260
6153 Model Application
279
6154 Conclusions
280
References
282
Problems
283
7 Nonlinear Optimization
294
72 Unconstrained Optimization Methods
299
722 Direct Methods
302
723 Dichotomous Search Method
303
724 Cauchy Cyclic Coordinate Ascent
305
725 Powells Conjugate Direction Method
306
73 GradientBased Methods
311
732 Newtons Method
314
733 Marquardts Algorithm
315
74 Constrained Optimization Methods
317
742 FrankWolfe Algorithm
323
743 Tuis Algorithm
328
744 The Reduced Gradient Method
329
745 The Generalized Reduced Gradient Method
335
746 The Convex Simplex Method
347
747 Boxs Algorithm
352
75 Case Study 1 North China Plain Water Management
354
751 The Management Model
355
752 Production Functions
359
753 Model Application
360
754 Model Results
361
755 Conclusions
366
76 Dynamic Programming
367
77 Case Study 2 Water Quality Management
375
771 Introduction
376
773 The Management Model
378
775 Model Application and Results
381
776 Conclusions
382
79 Case Study 3 Management of Saltwater Intrusion
391
791 Introduction
392
792 Management Model
394
793 Optimization Analysis
396
794 Conclusions
399
7101 Introduction
400
7102 Groundwater OptimizationRemediation Model
402
7103 Optimization Results
404
7104 Conclusions
406
7111 KuhnTucker Conditions for Nondominated Solutions
409
7113 The Constraint Method
410
7114 Overview of Generating Techniques
411
712 Case Study 5 Equity in Water Quality Management
412
7121 Equity Measures
414
7122 Model Application and Results
415
7123 Conclusions
416
References
417
Problems
421
Appendix A Review of Mathematics
432
A3 Vectors and Matrices
434
A4 Matrix Operations
436
A5 Determinants and the Matrix Inverse
437
A6 Quadratic Forms
439
A7 Scalar Vector and Matrix Derivatives
441
A8 Directional Derivative
443
A9 Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors
444
A10 Implicit Function Theorem
445
A11 Taylor Series
446
References
448
Appendix B Classical Optimization
450
B3 The Lagrange Multiplier Method
453
B4 The Lagrange Multiplier
458
References
460
Index
462
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