Environmental and Health Impact of Solid Waste Management Activities

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Ronald E. Hester, Roy M. Harrison
Royal Society of Chemistry, 2002 - Nature - 214 pages
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Solid waste management issues are a highly emotive topic. Disposal costs need to be balanced against environmental impact, which often results in heated public debate. Disposal options such as incineration and landfill, whilst unpopular with both the public and environmental pressure groups, do not pose the same environmental and health risks as, for example, recycling plants. This book, written by international experts, discusses the various waste disposal options that are available (landfill, incineration, composting, recycling) and then reviews their impact on the environment, and particularly on human health. Comprehensive and highly topical, Environmental and Health Impact of Solid Waste Management Activities will make a strong contribution to scientific knowledge in the area, and will be of value to scientists and policy-makers in particular.
 

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identify actual and potential impact to human health and environment due to solid waste management practices within damping site.

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BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Managing solid waste in our society has been a challenge for as long as people have gathered together sufficient numbers to impose a stress on local resources.
In a slummed
area like Agbogloshi, waste from houses and shops could be dealt with simply by hauling it to crude dumps where it could be buried, burned or recycled. Housed waste and other waste stream needed to be removed from the human environment to avoid nuisance and health problems, and the wider environment provided with an ample sink for these negative effects of human life.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
In recent times, Agbogloshi, has been noted to be one of the slummy areas with poor sanitary conditions in Accra.
This problem has been on the hike due to poor waste management practices coupled with overpopulation. The researcher has chosen Agbogloshi because it has one of the worst cases of filth in Accra. Drains designed and constructed for the effective flow of liquid waste and storm water has been choked with solid wastes some of are very difficult to decompose.
These drains have now become breeding grounds for mosquitoes and reptiles, exposing the slum dwellers prone to malaria and other sicknesses like diarrhea.
OBJECTIVES
The overall objective of this study is to access the level of sanitary and solid waste management in Agbogloshi.
The specific objectives of this study are;
• To have an in-depth understanding of the sanitary and waste management conditions of Agbogloshi, Accra.
• To determine whether poor planning and overcrowding contribute to sanitary conditions of the area.
RATIONALE
Several efforts have been taken to deal with waste management in the cities and towns but have proved difficult due to poor town planning and layout, and overcrowding. Most clustered areas are marked with poor road and drain networks, making it difficult to channel waste in our communities. Government therefore should ensure good planning and provide proper drainage facilities, waste containers and bins in an attempt to bring the situation under control, thus the need for the study.
LIMITATIONS
• The questionnaires could not cover a large number of households, considering the population of the study area.
• The economic conditions of the people of the study area have caused most people to live in wooden structures making it difficult to get clear cut households.
• The unplanned nature of the study area made systematic sampling tedious.
BY ALBERT ATTER ANGMOR
 

Contents

Their Efficacy and Acceptability
1
What Is Waste?
2
How Is Waste Managed?
7
Recycling
33
What Is Integrated Waste Management?
34
Trends in Waste Management
39
Public Attitudes
43
Conclusions
50
Emissions from Solid Waste Management Activities
141
Incineration
153
Other Waste Treatment Processes
165
Health Impacts of Waste Incineration
171
Emissions
174
Dispersion and Peak Concentration
179
Health Impacts and Costs
182
Monetary Valuation
185

Health Risks of Materials Recycling Facilities
53
Previous Research Concerning Waste Handsorting
58
A Further Study on MRFs
67
Conclusions
71
Acknowledgements
72
Microbial Emissions from Composting Sites
73
Bioaerosol Components
78
Potential 111 Health Effects among Compost Workers
84
Compost Site Case Studies
86
Health Case Studies
96
Issues in Environmental Science and Technology No 18
103
Overview of Epidemiological Studies
104
Adverse Birth Outcomes
116
Theoretical Basis of Purported Effects
129
Summary
139
Calculation of Damage
186
Damage Costs per Kilogram of Pollutant
189
Conclusions
192
Acknowledgements
193
Methodological Issues Related to Epidemiological Assessment of Health Risks of Waste Management
195
The Design of an Epidemiological Study
196
DiseaseHealth Measurement
197
Exposure Measurement
199
Confounding
204
Statistical Considerations
207
Criteria for Causation
209
Use of Epidemiological Studies in Risk Management
210
Subject Index
211
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About the author (2002)

The series has been edited by Professors Hester and Harrison since it began in 1994.

Professor Roy Harrison OBE is listed by ISI Thomson Scientific (on ISI Web of Knowledge) as a Highly Cited Researcher in the Environmental Science/Ecology category. He has an h-index of 54 (i.e. 54 of his papers have received 54 or more citations in the literature). In 2004 he was appointed OBE for services to environmental science in the New Year Honours List. He was profiled by the Journal of Environmental Monitoring (Vol 5, pp 39N-41N, 2003). Professor Harrison's research interests lie in the field of environment and human health. His main specialism is in air pollution, from emissions through atmospheric chemical and physical transformations to exposure and effects on human health. Much of this work is designed to inform the development of policy.

Now an emeritus professor, Professor Ron Hester's current activities in chemistry are mainly as an editor and as an external examiner and assessor. He also retains appointments as external examiner and assessor / adviser on courses, individual promotions, and departmental / subject area evaluations both in the UK and abroad.

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