Environmental and Health Impact of Solid Waste Management Activities
Ronald E. Hester, Roy M. Harrison
Royal Society of Chemistry, 2002 - Nature - 214 pages
Solid waste management issues are a highly emotive topic. Disposal costs need to be balanced against environmental impact, which often results in heated public debate. Disposal options such as incineration and landfill, whilst unpopular with both the public and environmental pressure groups, do not pose the same environmental and health risks as, for example, recycling plants. This book, written by international experts, discusses the various waste disposal options that are available (landfill, incineration, composting, recycling) and then reviews their impact on the environment, and particularly on human health. Comprehensive and highly topical, Environmental and Health Impact of Solid Waste Management Activities will make a strong contribution to scientific knowledge in the area, and will be of value to scientists and policy-makers in particular.
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identify actual and potential impact to human health and environment due to solid waste management practices within damping site.
BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Managing solid waste in our society has been a challenge for as long as people have gathered together sufficient numbers to impose a stress on local resources.
In a slummed area like Agbogloshi, waste from houses and shops could be dealt with simply by hauling it to crude dumps where it could be buried, burned or recycled. Housed waste and other waste stream needed to be removed from the human environment to avoid nuisance and health problems, and the wider environment provided with an ample sink for these negative effects of human life.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
In recent times, Agbogloshi, has been noted to be one of the slummy areas with poor sanitary conditions in Accra.
This problem has been on the hike due to poor waste management practices coupled with overpopulation. The researcher has chosen Agbogloshi because it has one of the worst cases of filth in Accra. Drains designed and constructed for the effective flow of liquid waste and storm water has been choked with solid wastes some of are very difficult to decompose.
These drains have now become breeding grounds for mosquitoes and reptiles, exposing the slum dwellers prone to malaria and other sicknesses like diarrhea.
The overall objective of this study is to access the level of sanitary and solid waste management in Agbogloshi.
The specific objectives of this study are;
• To have an in-depth understanding of the sanitary and waste management conditions of Agbogloshi, Accra.
• To determine whether poor planning and overcrowding contribute to sanitary conditions of the area.
Several efforts have been taken to deal with waste management in the cities and towns but have proved difficult due to poor town planning and layout, and overcrowding. Most clustered areas are marked with poor road and drain networks, making it difficult to channel waste in our communities. Government therefore should ensure good planning and provide proper drainage facilities, waste containers and bins in an attempt to bring the situation under control, thus the need for the study.
• The questionnaires could not cover a large number of households, considering the population of the study area.
• The economic conditions of the people of the study area have caused most people to live in wooden structures making it difficult to get clear cut households.
• The unplanned nature of the study area made systematic sampling tedious.
BY ALBERT ATTER ANGMOR
Their Efficacy and Acceptability
What Is Waste?
How Is Waste Managed?
What Is Integrated Waste Management?
Trends in Waste Management
Emissions from Solid Waste Management Activities
Other Waste Treatment Processes
Health Impacts of Waste Incineration
Dispersion and Peak Concentration
Health Impacts and Costs
Health Risks of Materials Recycling Facilities
Previous Research Concerning Waste Handsorting
A Further Study on MRFs
Microbial Emissions from Composting Sites
Potential 111 Health Effects among Compost Workers
Compost Site Case Studies
Health Case Studies
Issues in Environmental Science and Technology No 18
Overview of Epidemiological Studies
Adverse Birth Outcomes
Theoretical Basis of Purported Effects
Calculation of Damage
Damage Costs per Kilogram of Pollutant
Methodological Issues Related to Epidemiological Assessment of Health Risks of Waste Management
The Design of an Epidemiological Study
Criteria for Causation
Use of Epidemiological Studies in Risk Management