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THE EFFECT OF STIMULUS PRESENTATION SEQUENCE ON
TERRITORIAL SONG AS A FLOCKING SIGNAL IN REDWINGED
THE CONTRIBUTION OF TEMPORAL SONG CUES TO SPECIES
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acoustic signals active space ambient noise level attenuation avian band Behav Ecol Sociobiol bird song Blackbird Agelaius phoeniceus blackbird song breeding season Brenowitz 1982 California redwing changes in song Christman 1968 communication of species conspecific conspecific song control signal control trill dB SPL effective environmental noise evolution experimental signal full song habitat high frequency increases introductory components Ithaca redwing linear long-range communication low frequency Marler Marten maximum measured mockingbird noise ratio observed Orians and Christman playback experiments playback of full power spectrum predicted present study pulses/s range Red-winged Blackbird Agelaius redwing song redwing trill relative signal structure signal to noise song amplitude song SPL song spreads song structure sound level meter sound pressure sound pressure level sparrows speaker species identity species recognition spectral structure spectrograms spherical spreading stimulus strength of response territorial playbacks trill portion upland Waser wind Wood Thrush Yasukawa Yellow-headed Blackbirds