Epidemics: "Science, Governance and Social Justice"
Sarah Dry, Melissa Leach
Routledge, Sep 23, 2010 - Medical - 320 pages
Recent disease events such as SARS, H1N1 and avian influenza, and haemorrhagic fevers have focussed policy and public concern as never before on epidemics and so-called 'emerging infectious diseases'. Understanding and responding to these often unpredictable events have become major challenges for local, national and international bodies. All too often, responses can become restricted by implicit assumptions about who or what is to blame that may not capture the dynamics and uncertainties at play in the multi-scale interactions of people, animals and microbes. As a result, policies intended to forestall epidemics may fail, and may even further threaten health, livelihoods and human rights. The book takes a unique approach by focusing on how different policy-makers, scientists, and local populations construct alternative narratives-accounts of the causes and appropriate responses to outbreaks- about epidemics at the global, national and local level. The contrast between emergency-oriented, top-down responses to what are perceived as potentially global outbreaks and longer-term approaches to diseases, such as AIDS, which may now be considered endemic, is highlighted. Case studies-on avian influenza, SARS, obesity, H1N1 influenza, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and haemorrhagic fevers-cover a broad historical, geographical and biological range. As this book explores, it is often the most vulnerable members of a population-the poor, the social excluded and the already ill-who are likely to suffer most from epidemic diseases. At the same time, they may be less likely to benefit from responses that may be designed from a global perspective that neglects social, ecological and political conditions on the ground. This book aims to bring the focus back to these marginal populations to reveal the often unintended consequences of current policy responses to epidemics. Important implications emerge - for how epidemics are thought about and represented; for how surveillance and response is designed; and for whose knowledge and perspectives should be included. Published in association with the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC)
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actors AIDS alternative narratives approach argued avian flu avian influenza behaviour bushmeat cent Centre challenges chapter China chronic coinfection complex concerns context countries culling cultural debate dominant drug resistance dynamics Ebola ecological effective endemic epidemic example exceptionalist narrative Fidler focus focused framing garbage collectors global health global health policy haemorrhagic fevers health governance health systems Hewlett HIV/AIDS impact implemented individual industry infection initiatives institutions interactions International Health interventions issues knowledge Lassa fever Leach livelihoods longterm major MDRTB Muslim Brotherhood NGOs obesity organizations outbreak narratives pandemic particular pathogens pathways of response patients perspectives pigs policymakers political population potential problem programmes rightsbased risk SARS sex workers shift social South Africa strategies surveillance systems swine flu threat topdown transmission treatment tuberculosis viral virus vulnerability Western Cape WHO’s Zabaleen zoonotic