Equality for Women: Where Do We Stand on Millennium Development Goal 3?

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Mayra Buvinic, Andrew R. Morrison, A. Waafas Ofosu-Amaah, Mirja Sj blom
World Bank Publications, Sep 18, 2008 - Social Science - 372 pages
Upon signing the Millennium Declaration in 2000, the international community committed itself to eight development goals with timebound targets and measurable indicators. The third of these eight goals was to 'promote gender equality and empower women'. The third Millennium Development Goal (MDG3) in the Millennium Declaration has spurred national and international efforts to improve women's situation around the globe. 'Equality for Women: Where Do We Stand on Millennium Goal 3?' tracks countries' progress with implementing and financing MDG3 by examining national experiences and successes with policies and programs. It also contains an assessment of the effectiveness of different strategies in achieving MDG3 and the financial requirements needed to attain MDG3 by 2015. 'Equality for Women' will be useful for gender analysts, policy makers, government officials, and others working to promote gender mainstreaming.
 

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Contents

2 The State of World Progress 19902007
33
Table 21 Official MDG3 Indicators and Recommended Additional Indicators
37
Figure 21 PopulationWeighted Girls Enrollment Rates and GirlstoBoys Enrollment Ratios by Region 1990 and 2006
39
Figure 22 PopulationWeighted Ratio of Literate Females to Males among 15 to 24YearOlds by Region 1990 and 2006
41
Figure 23 PopulatedWeighted Rates of Primary School Completion for Girls by Region 1990 and 2006
42
Figure 24 Country Rank in Primary Enrollment Ratio against Country Rank in Primary Completion Ratio
43
Figure 25 GirlstoBoys Primary Completion Ratio Versus Primary Enrollment 2006 or Most Recent Year
44
Figure 26 SchooltoWork Transition 19952004
45
Figure 27 UnderFive Mortality Rate for Boys and Girls 200005
48
Figure 28 Percentage of 15 to 19YearOld Girls Who Are Mothers or Pregnant 19902000 and 200106
49
Figure 29 Percentage of Contraceptive Use by Region and Type of Contraceptive
50
Box 21 Fragile States and MDG3
52
Figure 210 PopulationWeighted Share of Women in Nonagricultural Wage Employment by Region 1990 and 2006
54
Figure 211 PopulationWeighted Female Labor Force Participation by Region for Ages 2024 and 2549 1991 and 2007
57
Figure 212 PopulationWeighted Female Labor Force Participation Rates for Age Group 2549 by Country 1991 and 2007
59
Figure 213 PopulationWeighted Ratio of FemaletoMale Hourly Wages by Region and Sector 2006
61
Figure 214 FemaletoMale Hourly Wage Ratios in Latin America and the Caribbean over Time and by Sector 1991 and 2006
63
Figure 215 PopulationWeighted Share of Women in Nonagricultural Wage Employment Versus Female Labor Force Participation
64
Figure 216 Share of Women in Nonagricultural Wage Employment Versus Ratio of Female to Male Hourly Earnings in Secondary and Tertiary Sect...
65
Figure 217 PopulationWeighted Percentage of Seats Held by Women in National Parliaments 1990 and 2006
67
Figure 218 Comparison of Relative Country Performance on Official MDG3 Indicators with Selected New Indicators
70
Figure 219 Countries Relative Performance on the Official MDG3 Indicators Compared with Other Countries in the Same Region
72
Figure 220 Intraregional Comparison of High and Low Performers for New Indicators
74
Table 22 High and Low Performers for Official and New Indicators
76
Figure 2A1 High and Low Performers for Ratio of Girls to Boys in Primary Enrollment
80
Figure 2A2 High and Low Performers for Ratio of Girls to Boys in Secondary Enrollment
81
Figure 2A3 High and Low Performers for Ratio of Girls to Boys in Tertiary Enrollment
82
Figure 2A4 High and Low Performers for Ratio of Girls to Boys in Primary School Completion
83
Figure 2A5 High and Low Performers for Female UnderFive Mortality
84
Figure 2A6 High and Low Performers for Share of Women in Nonagricultural Wage Employment
85
Figure 2A7 High and Low Performers for Female Labor Force Participation among 25 to 49YearOlds
86
Figure 2A8 High and Low Performers for Percentage of Seats Occupied by Women in National Parliaments
87
What Do They Measure and What Do They Miss?
93
Box 31 Gender Differences in the Structure of Employment
106
4 Monitoring Progress in Gender Equality in the Labor Market
147
Table 41 World Value of Duncan Index Gender Employment Segregation
150
Table 42 Value of Duncan Index by Region
151
Box 41 The MisMeasured Female Worker
153
Table 43 Relative FemaletoMale Wages by Region
155
Table 44 Effects of Eliminating Gender Differences in Pay and Employment
160
Table 45 Three Scenarios of Simulated Changes in Female and Male Wages and GDP under Conditions of Equality
161
Table 4A1 Share of Women in Employment by Type of Employment
165
Table 4A2 All Workers Country Duncan Values for Industrial Employment Based on ISIC68
168
Table 4A3 All Workers Country Duncan Values for Industrial Employment Based on ISIC90
172
Table 4A4 All Workers Country Duncan Values for Occupation Employment Based on ISCO68
178
Middle East and North Africa
203
5 The Financial Requirements of Achieving Gender Equality and Womens Empowerment
207
Box 51 Seven Strategic Priorities for Action on MDG3
211
An Overview of Different Approaches
212
Box 53 Interventions to Achieve MDG3 Not Included in an MDG Sector
219
Box 54 Gender Mainstreaming Interventions
220
Table 51 Average Annual per Capita Costs of Achieving Gender Equality
223
Table 52 Annual Costs of Mainstreamed GenderEqualityPromoting Interventions
225
Table 53 Average Annual per Capita MDG Costs and Financing Gaps
229
Table 54 Gender Costs as a Percentage of Total MDG Costs Averaged across Bangladesh Cambodia Ghana Tanzania and Uganda
230
Table 55 Total Gender Costs and Source of Financing for LowIncome Countries
232
Table 5A1 Average Alphas from 2006 through 2015 for Each MDG Sector
240
Per Capita Costs of Achieving Gender Equality
245
Cost of GenderEqualityPromoting Interventions as a Portion of Total Costs of Achieving the MDGs 200615
246
Per Capita Costs of Achieving Gender Equality
247
Cost of GenderEqualityPromoting Interventions as a Portion of Total Costs of Achieving the MDGs 200615
248
Per Capita Costs of Achieving Gender Equality
249
Cost of GenderEqualityPromoting Interventions as a Portion of Total Costs of Achieving the MDGs 200615
250
Per Capita Costs of Achieving Gender Equality
251
Cost of GenderEqualityPromoting Interventions as a Portion of Total Costs of Achieving the MDGs 200615
252
Per Capita Costs of Achieving Gender Equality
253
Cost of GenderEqualityPromoting Interventions as a Portion of Total Costs of Achieving the MDGs 200615
254
Getting Implementation Right for MDG3 in South Asia
261
Expenditures on Health 2003
264
Proportion of Health Allocations by Expenditure Category
265
Table 63 Pace of Decline in Infant Mortality over Half a Century
266
Doctor Absence at Public Health Facilities by State and Reason 2003
268
Select Education Expenditures and Outcomes 2003
269
Teacher Engagement by State
270
Change in Postprimary Education by Caste and Gender 1983200405
272
Improving Educational Outcomes Further
273
Performance of the National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme 2007
276
Elected Women Members in Local Governments Enhance Womens Voice
280
Figure 65 Bangladeshi and Pakistani Women Are Usually Consulted in Matters Related to the Home but Not Necessarily in Decisions about Their Ow...
283
Figure 66 Perceptions of Safety among Pakistani and Bangladeshi Women
285
Table 6A1 Female Secondary Education in LowIncome Countries 2000
288
Experiences from Mexico
293
Figure 71 GenderTargeted Conditional Cash Transfer Program
300
Making It Happen
311
Box 81 Factors Contributing to Effective Gender Mainstreaming in a Violence Prevention Initiative at the InterAmerican Development Bank
319
Box 82 Factors Contributing to Effective Gender Mainstreaming in NGOs and Projects in Africa
321
Lessons from the Asian Development Banks Loan Operations
322
Index
337
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