Essay on Classification
A major influence on the development of American scientific culture, Swiss-born Louis Agassiz (1807–73) was one of the great scientists of his day. A student of anatomist Georges Cuvier, Agassiz adapted his teacher's pioneering techniques of comparative anatomy to paleontology, and he rose to prominence as a distinguished systematist, paleontologist, and educator. Agassiz introduced science to ordinary citizens to an unprecedented degree; people around the world read his books, sent him specimens, and consulted his opinion.
Agassiz was also a staunch opponent of the theory of evolution, and he was among the last of the reputable scientists who continued to reject the concept after the publication of The Origin of the Species. All of nature bore testimony to a divine plan, Agassiz believed, and he could not reconcile himself to a theory that did not invoke God's design. Ironically, his 1851 Essay on Classification provided Darwin and other evolutionists with evidence from the fossil record to support the theory of natural selection.
A treasure of historically valuable insights that contributed to the development of evolutionary biology, this volume introduced the landmark contention that paleontology, embryology, ecology, and biogeography are inextricably linked in classifications that reveal the true relationships between organisms. Its emphasis on advanced and original work gave major impetus to the study of science directly from nature, and it remains a classic of American scientific literature.
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THE FUNDAMENTAL RELATIONS OF ANIMALS ONE TO ANOTHER AND TO THE WORLD IN WHICH THEY LIVE AS THE BASIS OF TH...
SIMULTANEOUS EXISTENCE OF THE MOST DIVERSIFIED UNDER IDENTICAL CIRCULISTANCES
REPETITION OF IDENTICAL TYPES UNDER THE MOST DIVERSIFIED CIRCUMSTANCES
UNITY OF PLAN IN OTHERWISE HIGHLY DIVERSIFIED TYPES
CORRESPONDENCE IN THE DETAILS OF STRUCTURE IN ANIMALS OTHERWISE ENTIRELY DISCONNECTED
VARIOUS DEGREES AND DIFFERENT KINDS OF RELATIONSHIP AMONG ANIMALS
SIMULTANEOUS EXISTENCE IN THE EARLIEST GEOLOGICAL PERIODS OF ALL THE GREAT TYPES OF ANIMALS
PARALLELISM BETWEEN THE GEOLOGICAL SUCCESSION OF ANIMALS AND THE EMBRYONIC GROWTH OF THEIR LIVING REPRES...
PROPHETIC TYPES AMONG ANIMALS
PARALLELISM BETWEEN THE STRUCTURAL GRADATION OF ANIMALS AND THEIR EMBRYONIC GROWTH
RELATIONS BETWEEN THE STRUCTURE THE EMBRYONIC GROWTH THE GEOLOGICAL SUCCESSION AND THE GEOGRAPHICAL DIS...
MUTUAL DEPENDENCE OF THE ANIMAL AND VEGETABLE KINGDOMS
PARASITIC ANIMALS AND PLANTS
COMBINATIONS IN TIME AND SPACE OF VARIOUS KINDS OF RELATIONS AMONG ANIMALS
THE GRADATION OF STRUCTURE AMONG ANIMALS
RANGE OF THE GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF ANIMALS
IDENTITY OF STRUCTURE OF WIDELY DISTRIBUTED TYPES
COMMUNITY OF STRUCTURE AMONG ANIMALS LIVING IN THE SAME REGIONS
SERIAL CONNECTION IN THE STRUCTURE OF ANIMALS WIDELY SCATTERD UPON THE SURFACE OF OUR GLOBE
RELATION BETWEEN THE SIZE OF ANIMALS AND THEIR STRUCTURE
RELATIONS BETWEEN THE SIZE OF ANIMALS AND THE MEDIUMS IN WHICH THEY LIVE
PERMANENCY OF SPECIFIC PECULIARITIES IN ALL ORGANIZED BEINGS
RELATIONS BETWEEN ANIMALS AND PLANTS AND THE SURROUNDING WORLD
RELATIONS OF INDIVIDUALS TO ONE ANOTHER
METAMORPHOSES OF ANIMALS
DURATION OF LIFE
SUCCESSION OF ANIMALS AND PLANTS IN GEOLOGICAL TIMES
LOCALIZATION OF TYPES IN PAST AGES
LIMITATION OF SPECIES TO PARTICULAR GEOLOGICAL PERIODS
PARALLELISM BETWEEN THE GEOLOGICAL SUCCESSION OF ANIMALS AND PLANTS AND THEIR PRESENT RELATIVE STANDING
LEADING GROUPS OF THE EXISTING SYSTEMS OF ANIMALS
CLASSES OF ANIMALS
ORDERS AMONG ANIMALS
OTHER NATURAL DIVISIONS AMONG ANIMALS
SUCCESSIVE DEVELOPMENT OF CHARACTERS
THE CATEGORIES OF ANALOGY
NOTICE OF THE PRINCIPAL SYSTEMS OF ZOOLOGY
EARLY ATTEMPTS TO CLASSIFY ANIMALS
PERIOD OF LINNĈUS
PERIOD OF CUVIER AND ANATOMICAL SYSTEMS
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Acalephs Acephala afﬁnity Agassiz Amphipoda analogies anatomical animal kingdom animals and plants Annelids appear aquatic Articulata ascertained Baer Birds Brachiopods branches Bryozoa Cephalopods Cetacea character characteristic characterized Cirripedia classiﬁcation combinations compared complication connection considered constitute Crinoids Crustacea Cuvier Decapods deﬁned deﬁnite different plans distinct diversiﬁed divisions Echinoderms eggs Embryology embryonic Entomostraca Evolutio exhibits thought existence extensive fact families ﬁeld ﬁnd ﬁrst ﬁshes ﬁve fossil Gasteropoda genera genus geological geological periods globe gradation higher homologies identical individuals Infusoria Insects instance intestine investigations kind living Mammalia mode modiﬁcations Mollusca Mollusks Myriapoda natural groups Natural History naturalists Oken orders origin parasites past ages peculiar period physical agents plan of structure Polyps present Radiata reference relations representatives Reptiles resemblance respecting Rotifera satisﬁed scientiﬁc Sect species speciﬁc subdivisions successive systems of organs tion toes true types Vertebrata vols whole Worms zoologists Zoology