Essentials of educational measurement

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Prentice-Hall, 1972 - Education - 622 pages
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Contents

EDUCATIONAL MEASUREMENT
14
Ancient and medieval 5 Nineteenth century 6 Early twentieth century 11 Between
26
ment be measured? 37 What are the functions of achievement tests? 41 What
46
PART II
52
The dual problems of test construction 55 The uses and limitations of educational
70
Affective outcomes as educational goals 78 Summary
79
The problem of quantification 81 Criterionreferenced and normreferenced measure
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HOW
97
Letters or numbers 336 Quality control in a marking system 337 Systematic marking
354
Balance 364 Efficiency 371 Objectivity 372 Specificity
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Discrimination 376 Reliability 378 Fairness 379 Speededness
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item analysis 392 Must all items discriminate? 393 The index of item difficulty
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Summary
405
The importance of reliability 407 The concept of test reliability 409 An operational
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The concept of validity 435 Two types of validity 436 Derived validity 438 Opera
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PUBLISHED TESTS AND TESTING PROGRAMS
449

Decide how the test is to be used 97 Decide when to test 99 Decide whether to
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of achievement 113 Outline the content to be covered by the test 115 Decide what
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THE CHARACTERISTICS
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Some differences between essay and objective tests 123 Some similarities of essay
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TRUEFALSE TEST ITEMS
155
Harmfulness
163
false and multiplechoice item forms 167 Efficiency and ease of construction
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test items 172 Requirements for good truefalse test items 175 Writing items
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The use of multiplechoice items in classroom testing 187 Suggestions for preparing
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Test presentation 230 Preparing the students 233 Developing skill in test taking
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The problem of testwiseness 234 The problem of test anxiety 237 Administering
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Differential scoring weights 258 Summary
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Essence and variations 264 Justifications 264 Limitations 265 Suggestions
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The statistical interpretation of test scores 271 Frequency distributions 274
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Stanine standard scores 293 Coefficients of correlation 296 Interpreting coefficients
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The problem of marking 307 Some questions and answers about marks 310
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Absolute versus relative marking 319 Percent marking problems 320 Relative
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The scope of published tests 451 Two limitations of published tests 453 Desirable
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STANDARDIZED ACHIEVEMENT TESTS
465
Factors limiting the variety of available achievement tests 469 Achievement test
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STANDARD SCORES
481
tion of the passing score 492 Summary
496
The nature of intelligence 498 Operational and analytic definitions of intelligence
503
Educational and environmental tasks 503 Nonverbal and culturefair tests 504 Tests
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different people have different attitudes 523 How are attitudes measured? 524
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TESTING PROGRAMS
531
School testing programs 534 Reporting test scores 535 Judging teacher competence 536 Developing a school testing program 538 Admission and sc...
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Certification of competence 541 Summary
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APPENDICES
545
GLOSSARY OF TERMS USED IN EDUCATIONAL MEASUREMENT
547
PROJECTS AND PROBLEMS
569
BIBLIOGRAPHY
597
INDEX
615
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