Estimating stopping distance and time for motor vehicles
Traffic Institute, Northwestern University, 1981 - Transportation - 62 pages
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air resistance angle average drag factor axle drag factor brake fade brake pedal pressure brake-to-stop speed brakes are applied braking distance calculated center of mass cient of friction coefficient of friction coeﬂicient collision combined cross slope deceleration decimal fraction driver drums engine braking equation estimating speed Estimating Stopping Distance example Exhibit 2-2 feet ﬁrst force front and rear front axle front wheel full trailer grade graph high speeds hoisted horizontal distance I3 I I3 indicated INITIAL SPEED locked wheels measured meters metric mile/h miles per hour nomograph pavement quantities rate of slowing rear axle rear wheels required to slide resultant drag factor road surface roadway rolling resistance scale semitrailer slide-to-stop speed slope speciﬁed speed estimate speed limit stop speed tance test skid tion tire marks total drag factor towed vehicle tractor vehi vehicle slid velocity weight shift wheel base wheels locked