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DATABASE SYSTEM OPERATION
DATABASE NONTECHNICAL INTERNAL CONTROLS
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and/or ANSI/SPARC application programs application systems approach areas audit trail backup base system batch changes checks COBOL CODASYL conceptual schema concurrent update control control measures control points data base data base administrator Data Base Management data dictionary data files data independence data integrity data processing database environment database system DBMS DBTG DD/D deadlock defined detect DMSS documentation effective error evaluation example external schema file system Flowchart functions hardware important input data input validation installation internal auditors internal control system lock necessary objective output peopleware performed personnel physical procedures provides record recovery reliability requirements responsibility routine schema source schemata segregation of duties separation of duties simulation specific Standards storage structure stored data subschema system design system development system of internal system operation technical controls techniques terminals testing tion total control system transaction users utility