Evolution, Old and New: Or, the Theories of Buffon, Dr. Erasmus Darwin, and Lamarck, as Compared with that of Mr. Charles Darwin
Hardwicke and Bogue, 1879 - 384페이지
"Of all the questions now engaging the attention of those whose destiny has commanded them to take more or less exercise of mind, I know of none more interesting than that which deals with what is called teleology--that is to say, with design or purpose, as evidenced by the different parts of animals and plants. The question may be briefly stated thus: Can we or can we not see signs in the structure of animals and plants, of something which carries with it the idea of contrivance so strongly that it is impossible for us to think of the structure, without at the same time thinking of contrivance, or design, in connection with it? It is my object in the present work to answer this question in the affirmative, and to lead my reader to agree with me, perhaps mainly, by following the history of that opinion which is now supposed to be fatal to a purposive view of animal and vegetable organs. I refer to the theory of evolution or descent with modification"--Book. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).
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according action admit already animals appear become beginning believe birds body brain breeds Buffon called cause changes chapter character circumstances climate common concerning conclusion consequence considerable considered continues course creature Darwin descent desire direct domestication effect evolution existence eyes fact feel forms Geoffroy give given greater habits hand head horse idea important individual kind Lamarck less living lower maintains manner matter means mind modification natural selection necessary never objects observe once opinion organ Origin of Species parent pass passage perception perfect perhaps Phil plants position present probably produced Professor question race reader reason refer regard resemblance result seems seen sensation sense single structure successive sufficiently suppose taken theory things tion true turn variations varieties vary vegetable volume whole writes Zool
230 페이지 - ... would it be too bold to imagine, that all warm-blooded animals have arisen from one living filament, which THE GREAT FIRST CAUSE endued with animality, with the power of acquiring new parts, attended with new propensities, directed by irritations, sensations, volitions, and associations; and thus possessing the faculty of continuing to improve by its own inherent activity-, and of delivering down those improvements by generation to its posterity, world without end!
248 페이지 - The work, from its powerful and brilliant style, though displaying in the earlier editions little accurate knowledge and a great want of scientific caution, immediately had a very wide circulation. In my opinion it has done excellent service in this country in calling attention to the subject, in removing prejudice, and in thus preparing the ground for the reception of analogous views.
362 페이지 - In the literal sense of the word, no doubt, Natural Selection is a false term; but who ever objected to chemists speaking of the elective affinities of the various elements ? — and yet an acid cannot strictly be said to elect the base with which it in preference combines.
12 페이지 - ... the absurdity of this answer. But suppose I had found a watch upon the ground, and it should be inquired how the watch happened to be in that place, I should hardly think of the answer which I had before given, that for any thing I knew the watch might have always been there.
373 페이지 - ... the wingless condition of so many Madeira beetles is mainly due to the action of natural selection, combined probably with disuse. For during many successive generations each individual beetle which flew least, either from its wings having been ever so little less perfectly developed or from indolent habit, will have had the best chance of surviving from not being blown out to sea...
319 페이지 - ... of climate, whose figure is best accommodated to health, strength, defence, and support; whose capacities and instincts can best regulate the physical energies to self-advantage according to circumstances — in such immense waste of primary and youthful life, those only come forward to maturity from the strict ordeal by which Nature tests their adaptation to her standard of perfection and fitness to continue their kind by reproduction.
345 페이지 - Natural selection acts only by the preservation and accumulation of small inherited modifications, each profitable to the preserved being...
13 페이지 - ... different size from what they are, or placed after any other manner, or in any other order, than that in which they are placed, either no motion at all would have been carried on in the machine, or none which would have answered the use that is now served by it. To reckon up a few of the plainest of these parts, and of their offices, all tending to one result : — We see a cylindrical box containing a coiled elastic spring, which, by its endeavour to relax itself, turns round the box.