Evolution of Silicon Sensor Technology in Particle Physics

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Springer Science & Business Media, Dec 1, 2008 - Science - 204 pages
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In the post era of the Z and W discovery, after the observation of Jets at UA1 and UA2 at CERN, John Ellis visioned at a HEP conference at Lake Tahoe, California in 1983 “To proceed with high energy particle physics, one has to tag the avour of the quarks!” This statement re ects the need for a highly precise tracking device, being able to resolve secondary and tertiary vertices within high-particle densities. Since the d- tance between the primary interaction point and the secondary vertex is proportional tothelifetimeoftheparticipatingparticle,itisanexcellentquantitytoidentifypar- cle avour in a very fast and precise way. In colliding beam experiments this method was applied especially to tag the presence of b quarks within particle jets. It was rst introduced in the DELPHI experiment at LEP but soon followed by all collider - periments to date. The long expected t quark discovery was possible mainly with the help of the CDF silicon vertex tracker, providing the b quark information. In the beginning of the 21st century the new LHC experiments are beginning to take 2 shape. CMS with its 206m of silicon area is perfectly suited to cope with the high luminosity environment. Even larger detectors are envisioned for the far future, like the SiLC project for the International Linear Collider. Silicon sensors matured from small 1in. single-sided devices to large 6in. double-sided, double metal detectors and to 6in. single-sided radiation hard sensors.
 

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Contents

Basic Principles of a Silicon Detector
1
111 Just Silicon and Some Impurities
2
112 The pnJunction
7
113 SiO₂
15
114 Summary of Silicon Properties
18
12 Ingredients to Use Silicon as Detector Basis
19
13 Working Principle of a Silicon Tracking Device
21
14 Single SidedDouble Sided Double Metal
26
First Steps with Silicon Sensors NA11 Proof of Principle
97
22 Development of the First Silicon Strip Detector for High Energy Physics NA11 and NA32
98
23 Distinguish c Quarks from Others
100
The DELPHI Microvertex Detector at LEP
103
32 The DELPHI Microvertex Detector 19961997
107
33 The Silicon Sensors of the DELPHI Microvertex Detector MVD
112
34 Implementation of Silicon Labs in Universities to Build a Large Device
117
35 Physics with the DELPHI Microvertex Detector
118

16 Sensor Parameters
29
161 Global Parameters
30
162 Bias Guard and Outside Protection Rings
32
163 Design of Strip Parameters
34
17 Practical Aspects of Handling and Testing Silicon Strip Devices
44
171 What is the StandardExhaustive Set of Quality Assurance Tests?
45
18 Production of Silicon Sensors
47
181 From Pure Sand to Detector Grade Silicon
48
182 Processing
50
19 Readout Electronics
58
110 Radiation Damage in Silicon Detector Devices
64
1102 Surface Damage
77
111 Other Silicon Detector Types
80
1112 CMOS Detectors Monolithic Active Pixels MAPS
82
1113 Silicon on Insulator Detector SOI
83
1114 Silicon Drift Detector
84
1115 Depleted Field Effect Transistors DEPFET Detectors
85
1116 3D Silicon Detectors
86
1117 Technology AdvantageDisadvantage Usage
88
113 Some Always Unexpected Problems Along the Way
90
CDF The Worlds Largest Silicon Detector in the 20th Century the First Silicon Detector at a Hadron Collider
123
42 Design How to Cover η2 Without Endcap
128
43 Six Inch a New Technology Step for Large Silicon Applications
137
44 Lessons Learned from Operation
142
45 The t Discovery CP Violation in the b Quark Sector
144
CMS Increasing Size by 2 Orders of Magnitude
147
51 Design How to Survive 10 Years in the Radiation Environment of LHC
157
511 Electronics Quarter Micron Technology
158
512 Silicon Sensors
159
52 Construction Issues for Large Detector Systems with Industry Involvement
166
521 Quality Assurance and Problems During the Process
167
522 Assembly
169
53 Physics with the CMS Tracker and HighLevel Trigger
172
Continuing the Story Detectors for the SLHC and the ILC
179
61 A Silicon Tracker for the Super Large Hadron Collider SLHC
180
62 A Silicon Tracker for the International Linear Collider ILC
183
Conclusion and Outlook
186
References
197
Index
203
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