Evolutionary Phonology: The Emergence of Sound Patterns
Evolutionary Phonology is a theory of sound patterns which synthesizes results in historical linguistics, phonetics and phonological theory. In this book, Juliette Blevins explores the nature of sounds patterns and sound change in human language over the past 7000–8000 years, the time depth for which the comparative method is reasonably reliable. This book presents an approach to the problem of how genetically unrelated languages, from families as far apart as Native American, Australian Aboriginal, Austronesian and Indo-European, can often show similar sound patterns, and also tackles the converse problem of why there are notable exceptions to most of the patterns that are often regarded as universal tendencies or constraints. It argues that in both cases, a formal model of sound change that integrates phonetic variation and patterns of misperception can account for attested sound systems without reference to markedness or naturalness within the synchronic grammar.
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acoustic alternations appear articulation articulatory based sound change Blevins chain shifts chapter closure clusters coarticulation codas consonants context coronal cross-linguistic cues diachronic dialects distinct English epenthesis evidence evolution Evolutionary Phonology example final devoicing frequency fricatives geminates give rise glottal historical instances inventories involving labial laryngeal laryngeal features length contrast lengthening lenition lexical lexical diffusion linguistic listener markedness misperception model of sound motivated sound change nasalized vowels natural neogrammarian neutralization Obligatory Contour Principle obstruents occur Ohala oral stops palatalization Pama-Nyungan languages perceptual pharyngeals phonetic phonetic explanations phonetic features phonetic source phonetically motivated sound phonological phonological features phonological systems phonotactics place features place of articulation position pre-aspiration properties prosodic reflect regular sound change result role rule segments sequences shift similar sonorants sound change speakers speech stress structure suggest syllabification syllable synchronic grammars tion types velar versus voiceless vowels voicing word-final word-initial words world’s languages Yurok