Exercise and Its Mediating Effects on Cognition

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Current research is changing the notion that little can be done to deflect the inexorable damage done to the brain by the aging process. Exercise and Its Mediating Effects on Cognition shows that although many factors contribute to a healthy mind, an active lifestyle provides positive contributions to the cognitive functioning of the aging brain.

Exercise and Its Mediating Effects on Cognition examines how physical activity can indirectly affect cognitive function by influencing mediators--such as sleep quality, nutrition, disease states, anxiety, and depression--that affect physical and mental resources for cognition. This volume also identifies and studies key sources of individual variations in exercise and cognitive processes. Seventeen internationally recognized experts in exercise, cognition, neurobiological processes, and aging provide a review of the state of knowledge and, where appropriate, provide practical applications of research findings. The book's review of research will update and expand current thinking on pertinent issues regarding the relationship between exercise and cognition.

The research presented in Exercise and Its Mediating Effects on Cognition is organized within a general model that illustrates the interrelationships of exercise and physical activity and the mediators that enhance cognition. Each chapter begins with an overview of how the topic fits into the general model. Following each chapter, a summary provides not only the highlights of the chapter but also the consensus or controversies associated with the chapter topic.

The first chapter outlines the exercise-cognition model developed by Spirduso, Poon, Chodzko-Zajko, and the text's contributors. Chapter 2 discusses exercise, mediators that affect physical and mental resources for cognition, and the combined relational effect on the cognitive process. Chapters 3 through 5 present research conducted on exercise and cognition in relation to depression, stress, and self-efficacy. Chapter 6 discusses cognitive energetics. Methodological problems of exercise and mental resources are presented in chapter 7; and diet, motor behavior, and cognition are discussed in chapter 8. Chapters 9 and 10 discuss the relationships between exercise, sleep, and cognition. The effects of exercise on cognition in cases of hypertension, diabetes, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are presented in chapters 11 through 13. In the final chapter, the editors offer conclusions and future research directions.

Exercise and Its Mediating Effects on Cognition is the second of a three-volume series in Human Kinetics' Aging, Exercise, and Cognition series, which presents advanced research and key issues for understanding and researching the links between exercise, aging, and cognition. In Exercise and Its Mediating Effects on Cognition, internationally known experts define current knowledge and future directions to address issues of active living, cognitive functioning, and aging. All three volumes are essential references for cognitive gerontologists, medical and health science researchers, exercise science researchers and professionals, and public health administrators interested in scientific evidence demonstrating the beneficial effects of regular physical activity on cognitive functioning and general health during the aging process.


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Interrelationships of Exercise
Exercise Depression and Cognition
CHAPTER4 Exercise Stress Mechanisms and Cognition
SelfEfficacy Physical Activity
Cognitive Energetics and Aging
Exercise and Physical Resources
Exercise and Sleep Quality
Exercise Chronic Disease and Cognition
Diabetes Executive Control
Exercise Chronic Obstructive
Conclusions and Future Research Directions
About the Editors

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Page 266 - Incidental subcortical lesions identified on magnetic resonance imaging in the elderly. I. Correlation with age and cerebrovascular risk factors. Stroke 1986;17:1084-1089.

About the author (2007)

Waneen W. Spirduso, EdD, is the Oscar and Anne Mauzy Regents Professor in the department of kinesiology and health education at the University of Texas (UT) at Austin. She was chair of the UT department of kinesiology and health education for 14 years and served as interim dean of the College of Education for 2-1/2 years. Since 1975 her academic interests, research, and presentations have focused on issues central to gerontology and kinesiology, and her research programs have been sponsored by four of the National Institutes of Health and several local foundations.

A widely published author, Dr. Spirduso is also a popular speaker at conferences across the United States. She is the recipient of many honors and awards, including recognition as the Texas Association for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance Scholar in 1986 and the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance Scholar (AAHPERD) in 1987. She served two terms as president of the North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity (NASPSPA) and one term as president of the American Academy of Kinesiology and Physical Education (AAKPE).

Dr. Spirduso is a fellow of the Gerontological Society of America and a member of AAHPERD, ACSM, and AAKPE.

Leonard W. Poon, PhD, is a professor of public health and psychology, chair of the faculty of gerontology, and director of the Gerontology Center at the University of Georgia at Athens. He received his PhD in experimental psychology in 1972 from the University of Denver and has studied aging and cognition for over 30 years with specific emphasis on environmental and lifestyle influences that enhance cognitive functioning in older adults.

A fellow of the American Psychological Association, American Psychological Society, Association of Gerontology in Higher Education, and the Gerontology Society of America, Poon was a Fulbright senior research scholar in Sweden and a senior visiting research scientist to Japan. In 2000, Poon received an honorary doctorate of philosophy from Lund University in Sweden. Among his research awards are the NIA Special Research Award, VA Medical Research Service Achievement Award, North American Leader in Psychogeriatrics, and Southern Gerontological Society Academic Gerontologist Award.

Poon''s primary research areas are normal and pathological changes of memory processes in aging, clinical assessment of memory (including assessment of early stages of dementia of the Alzheimer''s type), and survival characteristics and adaptation of centenarians. He is currently directing a nine-university, NIA-funded program studying the genetic basis of longevity, relationships between the brain and behavior in Alzheimer''s disease, and daily functioning capacities of the oldest old.

Poon currently resides in Athens, Georgia. In his free time he enjoys cycling, photography, and traveling.

Wojtek Chodzko-Zajko, PhD, serves as both department head and professor of kinesiology and community health at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He served on the World Health Organization Scientific Advisory Committee, which issued guidelines for physical activity in older adults. Chodzko-Zajko chairs the Active Aging Partnership, a national coalition in the area of healthy aging linking the American College of Sports Medicine, the National Institute of Aging, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the American Geriatrics Society, the National Council on the Aging, the American Association of Retired Persons, and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.

Since 2002, Chodzko-Zajko has served as principal investigator of the National Blueprint Project, a coalition of more than 50 national organizations with a joint commitment to promoting independent, active aging in the 50+ population. He was founding editor of the Journal of Aging and Physical Activity and president of the International Society for Aging and Physical Activity.

He is frequently invited to speak about healthful aging at national and international meetings. Chodzko-Zajko has appeared often on television and radio, including the NBC "Today Show," National Public Radio, and CNN.

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