## Experimentation: An Introduction to Measurement Theory and Experiment Design |

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This book was written as an introduction to statistics for the USAF Academy students. It's highly pedantic tone is sorely needed for today's practitioners of statistics who blindly apply complex algorithms from package programs without any idea of what they do. A bit more conservative skepticism would be quite useful. It helped me. I don't believe anything anymore if a statistician had any say in it. Mark Twain was so right.

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68 per cent absolute uncertainty actual ammeter analysis answer apparatus arise ation best estimate best value calculation calibration cent chance certainty clearly computed consider constant defined dependent described Determine difference dimensional analysis distribution curve Euclidean geometry evaluation example experiment experimenter fixed and known function Gaussian distribution give given graph paper horizontally independent variable intercept least squares linear mean measured variables measurement program ment meter stick method NORMAL DISTRIBUTION number of readings number of significant obtained ohms outer limits periment perturbations physics laboratory plot possible probability problem procedure Propagation of Uncertainties quantity quoted random range of uncertainty reader reference relative uncertainty resistor result sample standard deviation set of observations set of readings significant figures simple pendulum slope stands a 68 statement straight line student systematic error temperature theoretical theory tion validity value of bz variation vertically Wheatstone bridge

### Popular passages

Page 137 - ... Hysteresis is the maximum difference in output at any measured value within the specified range when the value is approached first with increasing and then with decreasing measurand. The reference straight line selected is often the linear least-squares line. This line is based on the following principle: the most probable value of an observed quantity is such that the sum of the squares of the deviations of the observations from this value is a minimum.

Page 23 - This inflated index of variability can be overcome by taking the square root of the variance. The square root of the variance is called the standard deviation.

Page 179 - Although its full derivation is beyond our scope its plausibility can be indicated as follows: j log x dx = [x log x — x]" = n log n — n + 1 The graph of log x vs.

Page 16 - Depending on the degree of perturbation or of judgement required, the spread may be a large or small fraction of the magnitude of the measurement. If the spread is large compared with the absolute value of the measured quantity, we can say, in general terms, that the reliability or precision of the measurements is poor, and vice versa.

Page 30 - Since areas under a frequency distribution curve represent numbers of readings, areas, expressed as a fraction of the total area, are a measure of the probability of obtaining readings within the range denning the area.

Page 148 - An experiment has been carried out to investigate the temperature dependence of the resistance of a copper wire. The ideal variation can be represented by R = /zi(i + Ğr> Observer ifean Sdoiia tri ticviscoD.

Page 12 - ... mechanism is moving so that the error may be different when the reading is increasing from that when it is decreasing. Electrical and electronic instruments can suffer from drift of settings over a period of time owing to an increase in temperature of components. 2 Operator skill: a great many tests are based on personal manipulation of the apparatus and visual reading of a resultant indication. An operator may be called on to prepare a sample, load it into the instrument, adjust readings such...

Page 13 - This rounding off is equivalent to a statement that, whatever the actual value of the uncertainty, it cannot be less than 5 in the next decimal place. Thus...

Page 87 - A special case arises when, in such comparison-type measurements, the reference value can be controlled so that the measuring instrument reads zero at the time the measurement is being made.

Page 27 - If h is large, the curve is narrow and high; if small, the curve is low and broad. The quantity...