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68 per cent absolute uncertainty actual analysis answer apparatus arise ation best estimate best value calculation calibration cent chance certainty clearly computed consider constant defined dependent described Determine difference dimensional analysis distribution curve evaluation example experiment experimenter fixed and known function Gaussian distribution give given graph paper horizontally independent variable intercept least squares linear mean measured variables measurement program ment merely meter stick method Normal Distribution number of readings number of significant obtained Ohm's law ohms outer limits periment perturbations physics laboratory plot possible probability problem procedure Propagation of Uncertainties quantity quoted random range of uncertainty reader reference relative uncertainty resistor result sample standard deviation set of observations set of readings significant figures simple pendulum slope stands a 68 statement straight line student systematic error temperature theoretical theory tion validity variation vertically Wheatstone bridge wire
Page 137 - This line is based on the following principle: the most probable value of an observed quantity is such that the sum of the squares of the deviations of the observations from this value is a minimum.