Experiments on the Freezing of Certain Building Materials

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H.M. Stationery Office, 1938 - Building materials - 146 pages
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Contents

LIST OF FIGURES Fig Page 1 Disintegration of limestone by frost facing
1
Physical Properties of Water and Ice
4
Estimated values for the volumetric coefficient of thermal expansion of ice
5
Dilatometer tubes
6
Expansion when water is converted into ice
7
Experimental Procedure and Results
10
Diagram of apparatus showing general arrangement
11
Photograph of main apparatus facing
12
Degree of saturation attained by immersion
54
Linear expansion of specimens having different degrees of saturation
55
Sand0lime brick Linear strains at 6 C 1st freezing with various degrees of saturation
56
Linear expansions at 5 C Repeated freezings with increasing water contents
57
Variation of linear strain with degree of saturation for Stancliffe stone S 358
58
Linear strains for 2nd freezing of Caen limestone C 279
59
Effect of repeated freezings on saturated Stancliffe stone S 165
60
Table Page
61

Typical curve from dilatometer experiments
13
Results of dilatometer experiments
16
Drainage of water from Ketton stone
21
Saturation coefficients
22
Porosity of materials before and after freezing
24
Apparatus for transverse test
27
Reduction in the value of the stressstrain relationship E for saturated materials frozen once in air at 5 C
28
Reduction in strength and value of stressstrain relationship compared
29
Stressstrain curves for Stancliffe stone showing the effect of rate of loading
32
Stressstrain curves for Box Ground Limestone BG 223
33
10 Portland Whitbed P 148 Stressstrain curves after 16th freezing
34
Strain produced by a stress of 5904 lb sq in on first loading including creep during 15 minutes
35
3rd or later rapid loading
36
Ratio of Ewet to Eary before and after freezing
37
Stressstrain relationship values before and after freezing
38
Linear extensometer
46
Linear extensometer observations
49
Initial expansion time curves in linear expansion experiments
51
Linear strain produced by one freezing at 5 C
53
Cracked specimens of Corsham Down stone facing
73
Changes of linear strain with time at constant temperature facing
75
Decrease in linear strain of frozen partially saturated sandstones at 5 C
76
Changes in linear strain of frozen Stancliffe stone S 361 at 005 C and10 C
83
various temperatures
84
Stancliffe stonecontractions at low temperatures
86
Moisture sorption and moisture movement of a sandstone
89
Summary
92
Doulting stone Absorption and reduction of E curves
96
Fig Pagb
97
References
99
Dilatometer curves for Stancliffe stone
103
Estimation of the amount of extrusion and of
108
Box Ground limestone Specimen BG 223 22nd freezing
116
stresses during freezing 108
132
Stressstrain curves for Ketton Rag KR 326
135
Decrease in strains of frozen limestones due to a fall
140
Index
143

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