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PROPERTIES OF MANGANESE DIOXIDES
DESIGN OF THE INVESTIGATION PROCEDURE
DISCUSSION OF RESULTS
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75°C and initial a-MnO Analyses of solutions aqueous solutions Arrhenius Equation average oxidation birnessite Bricker calculated chemical analyses cobalt concentration Crystal structure dissolution electron microscope picture energies of formation equilibrium experiment at 75°C experimental extraction rates extraction reactions feed material Hoover and Fuerstenau hours of leaching impurities increase initial pH kcal/mole KN KN large cations layers leaching behavior manganese dioxides manganese ions manganese nodules manganites metal ions micron Mn ions Mn(ll MnOx nickel observed OJ OJ onset of phase oxide-hydroxides p-MnO peak phase change phase transformation picture of solids potassium pre-exponential factors pyrolusite quartz reflection S-MnO Scale represents Scanning electron microscope selective leaching solid samples solids after leaching solids during leaching solutions for experiment specific surface area stability field diagram Stability relations standard free energies surface area measurements Table temperature thermodynamic tion todorokite Transmission electron microscope Turkish Armed Forces x-ray diffraction patterns