Extrusion of Aluminium Alloys

Front Cover
Springer Science & Business Media, Jan 31, 1999 - Technology & Engineering - 420 pages
In recent years the importance of extruded alloys has increased due to the decline in copper extrusion, increased use in structural applications, environmental impact and reduced energy consumption. There have also been huge technical advances. This text provides comprehensive coverage of the metallurgical, mathematical and practical features of the process.
 

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Contents

Introduction
1
111 The origin of extrusion
2
112 Extrusion presses for sheathing electric cables
3
12 The thermomechanical process
6
13 Direct and indirect extrusion
7
131 Direct extrusion
8
132 Indirect extrusion
11
14 Extrusion of rods and solid shapes
12
4122 Metallurgical aspects
188
4123 Technological problems
191
413 Limit diagrams
198
Homogenization and extrusion conditions for specific alloys
205
52 1XXX alloys
206
53 2XXX alloys
208
54 3XXX alloys
216
55 4XXX alloys
219

15 Extrusion of hollow sections
14
16 The extrusion press
16
162 Indirect presses
20
Continuum principles
24
22 Constitutive equations
27
23 The extrusion pressure
29
231 Bulk analysis
30
232 The upperbound theorem
31
233 Finiteelement solutions
37
234 Comparison of finiteelement modelling with upperbound and slipline field techniques
38
24 The friction coefficient
48
25 Temperature models
49
252 Heat balance in extrusion
50
253 Finiteelement modelling predictions
53
254 Thermal balance during extrusion predicted by integral profile techniques
55
26 Diffusion
61
261 Ficks laws of diffusion
62
262 Solutions to the diffusion equation
63
263 Problems in which D varies with composition
66
Metallurgical features affecting the extrusion of aluminium alloys
69
312 The 2XXX system
70
313 The 3XXX system
72
316 The AA6XXX system
76
317 The A A7XXX system
81
318 Aluminiumlithium alloys
86
32 The DC cast state
90
33 Homogenization
93
331 Atomic movements and D
95
332 Metallurgical consideration of homogenization
102
34 Thermal activation
110
35 Recovery and recrystallization
113
351 Dynamic recovery and dynamic recrystallization
114
352 Microstructure
115
36 Recrystallization and layer thickness after solution soaking
116
37 Quench sensitivity
119
Extrusion processing
127
422 Theoretical considerations
129
423 Comparison of compression and torsion in material assessment
130
43 Material flow in extrusion
136
44 The pressuredisplacement diagram
140
45 The strain rate during extrusion
141
46 Extrusion pressure practical considerations
143
461 The effect of friction
144
463 The effect of section shape
146
47 Surface quality considerations
151
48 Processstructure relationships
156
49 Recrystallization
160
492 Volume fraction recrystallization in the Ftemper and after solution soaking
166
410 The relationship between process parameters and properties
170
411 Material flow and inhomogeneity structural considerations
176
4112 Substructura1 considerations
179
4113 Extrudate structure
183
4114 Subgrain size
184
4115 Development of dislocation structure related to peak pressure
185
412 Press quenching and press solutionizing
186
56 5XXX alloys
221
57 6XXX alloys
227
582 AlZnMgCu alloys
232
59 Aluminiumlithium alloys
236
510 Extrudability limit and productivity diagrams
238
5102 Limit diagrams
240
5103 Productivity diagrams
245
Processing of 6XXX alloys
253
62 Alloys of specific applications
261
622 Mediumstrength alloys
263
63 Factors affecting quench sensitivity
267
632 Recrystallization inhibitors
269
633 Toughness
270
64 Surface problems and surface generation
272
642 Surface features
274
643 Extrusion topology limit diagrams
291
644 Summary
293
65 Alternative metallurgical diagrams
295
651 Possible phase transformations
296
66 Texture
301
67 Extrusion defects
303
672 Recovery related defects
307
673 Metallurgical defects visible after anodizing
317
Plant utilization
323
721 The extrusion press
324
722 Ancillary equipment
327
723 The extrusion process and parameter optimizing
330
73 Press requirements
331
731 Reliability
332
733 Hydraulics
335
74 Isothermal extrusion
340
741 Process optimization
342
742 Features required in a comprehensive process optimization
343
743 Results of process optimization
345
75 Expert systems
351
751 An expert system applied to an extrusion press
353
752 A typical system description
354
76 Aspects of die design and correction
357
761 Die stack considerations
360
763 Process factors to consider before modifying the die
370
77 Tool failure
374
78 Scrap losses
375
781 Extrusion losses
376
782 Billet scrap
378
79 Extrusion control in manufacturing profiles of complex shapes
380
792 1mprovement of billet quality
381
794 Extrusion condition
382
7102 Extrusion section
384
7103 Billet section
385
International alloy designations and chemical composition limits for wrought aluminium and wrought aluminium alloys
389
Conversion factors for some common units
401
Temper designations
405
Index
409
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