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HOW TO OBTAIN QUANTITATIVE INFORMATION ON FISH BY ECHOSOUNDING
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average scattering cross-section beam width biomass density cage calibration constant calibration on live centre decibel density of fish depth directivity pattern function distance echo integrator deflection echo signal echosounder EDSU energy equation equivalent cross-section exp ZBR exp(2BR external transducer Figure Figure Figure fish biomass fish density Forbes and Nakken frequency given Hydrophone incident sound wave insonified layer live fish measured medium multiple target noise obtain oscilloscope output signal parameters plane angle point source pressure propagation proportional proportionality law pulse length radiated range receiver recording paper reflected sound wave reflecting directivity pattern sampled volume seawater Section single target Snell's law solid angle sonar system sound intensity sound velocity sound wave species sphere standard target steradian swim bladders target strength thickness cT/2 trans transducer's beam transducer's directivity pattern transmission two-way directivity pattern underwater velocity of sound vessel's transducer vibrating voltage voltage response wave length