Facilitative Glucose Transporters in Articular Chondrocytes: Expression, Distribution and Functional Regulation of GLUT Isoforms by Hypoxia, Hypoxia Mimetics, Growth Factors and Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines

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Articular cartilage is a highly specialized avascular connective tissue. This multidisciplinary article reviews the molecular and morphological aspects of GLUT expression and function in chondrocytes and their mesenchymal and embryonic stem cell precursors.

 

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Contents

Introduction
1
Nutrient Sensing A Fundamental Property of All Living Cells
2
Glucose The Universal Energy Currency
3
Regulation of Glucose Metabolism by Feedback Regulation
4
Glucose Sensors Lessons Learned from Other Organisms
5
Normal Articular Cartilage Structure and Function
6
Loss of Articular Cartilage Structure and Function in Osteoarthritis
9
Does Arthritis Have a Nutritional Etiology?
13
Physiological Roles of GLUTs 614
29
Molecular Diversity of Facilitative Glucose Transporters in Articular Chondrocytes
31
Functional Significance of GLUT1 and GLUT3 in Articular Chondrocytes The Developmental Perspective
32
Functional Significance of GLUT1 and GLUT3 in Articular Chondrocytes The Metabolic Perspective
37
Regulation of Hypoxia and HypoxiaResponsive Gene Expression by the Transcription Factor HIF1ain Chondrocytes
38
Expression of HIF1a and GLUT1 in Normal and Osteoarthritic Articular Cartilage
40
Functional Significance of ATPSensitive KATP Potassium Channels in Articular Chondrocytes
46
Regulation of Glucose Transport by Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs
50

Nutrition and Osteochondritis Dissecans
14
Nutrient Diffusion in the Extracellular Matrix of Articular Cartilage
15
Cartilage Canals and Vascular Supply in Subchondral Bone
16
Diet Influences Cartilage Canal Development
17
Resistance to IGFI Implicates Metabolic Dysfunction in OA
18
Glucose An Essential Metabolite and Structural Precursor for Articular Cartilage
19
Mammalian Sugar Transporter Families GLUT and SGLT
22
Physiological Roles of GLUTs 15
23
Glucose Transporters in the Intervertebral Disc
53
Glucose Transporter Expression and Regulation in Embryonic and Mesenchymal Stem Cells
57
Concluding Remarks
66
Acknowledgements
68
References
69
Index
85
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