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abundant acres ammonia amount article of fuel average beds of peat bituminous bituminous coal blocks Bog of Allen Boston bricks burning carbon cent charcoal charred coke combustion compact condensed peat considerable contains cost crude peat cubic D. K. Clark deposits of peat depth Dismal Swamp dried engine equal especially experiments extensive fact fifteen fire five forests four furnace Grand Trunk Railway heat Horwich hundred acres inches Ireland iron land Lavaltrie less locomotive machine machinery manufacture marsh mass material matter miles mosses naphtha numerous obtained operation peat-beds peat-bogs peat-charcoal peat-fuel Pond portion prepared produced puddling furnace pulp purposes quantity railroad reports Rockland County says six feet square miles steam substance superior supply surface thickness thirty thousand cords tion tons trees turf twenty valuable vegetable weight wood or coal Yale College yield
Page xiii - Uses to which it is applicable; toge ther with many other matters of Practical and Scientific Interest. To which is added a chapter on the Utilization of Coal Dust with Peat for the Production of an Excellent Fuel at Moderate Cost, especially adapted for Steam Service.
Page 77 - ... is proved by their own testimony, from experience, and by the few scattered stumps which still remain resting on the present surface. Not so however with oaks, as their stumps are commonly found resting on the gravel at the base, or on the sides of the small hillocks of gravel and sand which so often stud the surfaces of bogs, and have by Mr. Aher been aptly called islands.
Page 32 - It is accounted a tolerably sweet fire; and having very impolitically destroyed our wood, and not as yet found stone-coal, except in a few places, we could hardly live without some bogs. When the turf is charred, it serves to work iron, and even to make it in a bloomery or iron work. Turf charred I reckon the sweetest and wholesomest fire that can be ; fitter for a chamber and for consumptive people than either wood, stone-coal, or charcoal.
Page 24 - Peat is an accumulation of half-decomposed vegetable matter formed in wet or swampy places. In temperate climates it is due mainly to the growth of mosses of the genus Sphagnum. This plant forms a loose turf, and has the property of dying at the extremity of the roots as it increases above; and it thus may gradually form a bed of great thickness. The roots and leaves of other plants, or their branches and stumps, and any other vegetation present, may contribute to the accumulating bed.
Page 102 - Jackson's analysis, shows that it contains, in 100 grains, Bitumen, 72 Carbon, 21 Oxide of Iron, 4 Silica, 1 Ox. Manganese, 2 100 "This substance is, therefore, a true bituminous coal, remarkable indeed for containing more bitumen than is found in any other coal known. I suppose it to have been formed by the chemical changes, supervening upon fir balsam, during its long immersion in the humid peat.
Page 138 - It is well known, however, that numerous shell marl-beds or pits are exclusively and profitably worked for fertilizing purposes. These marl-beds are usually found to rest upon a bed of clay, sand, or gravel, and are succeeded by peat or muck, the depth of the peaty deposits varying, according to the statements we have seen, from three to twenty feet. Peat, varying in quality for purposes of fuel, is found in Montague, Harrisville, Sandiston, Vernon, and other localities.
Page 231 - Dartmoor, the peat is cut by the convicts from the prison, working in gangs ; and, after being dried, it is carefully stored in one of the old prisons. From this peat, by a most simple process, gas is made with which the prisons at Princetown are lighted. The illuminating power of this gas is very high. The charcoal left after the separation of the gas is used in the same establishment for fuel and for sanitary purposes, and the ashes eventually go to improve the cultivated lands of that bleak region....
Page 258 - The foregoing analysis is founded upon a well known fact, that the quantity of heat, generated during the combustion of any fuel, is in exact relation to the quantity of oxygen consumed in the process. Hence, in order to ascertain the relative calorific power of different kinds of fuel, it is only necessary to ascertain the quantity of oxygen which each consumes in burning."| These experiments show that seven tons of peat coke are equal to six tons of good coal coke.
Page 114 - The ashes of peat are not more troublesome, and are less injurious to the furniture of a room, than the ashes of coal. , " The best peat is found in meadows which have for many years been destitute of trees and brush, and well drained, and where the surface has become so dry, and the accumulation of decayed vegetable matter so great, that but little grass or herbage of any description is seen upon the surface. "A rod square, cut two spittings deep, each spitting of the length of eighteen inches,...