Family and Farm: Agrarian Change and Household Organization in the Loire Valley, 1500-1900
Family and Farm is the history of the communautes, the large patriarchal households of central France, from the close of the medieval era to the nineteenth century. These households were unique in that they often included as many as twenty members, holding property in common. Far from having roots in any cultural bias or folkloric tradition, the communautes were organized to enable individual families to meet the demands imposed by the social, economic, and physical environments in which they lived. The book examines household composition, the role of kinship, inheritance and successive strategies, and the nature of interpersonal relations.
The period covered by the study includes the collapse of feudalism, the rise of the modern state, the French revolution, and the emergence of agrarian capitalism. Each crisis posed fundamental problems of survival for peasant families, and the organization of households constituted a crucial means by which that survival was ensured.
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A. D. Nièvre agricultural revolution agriculture apanaged arable artificial meadows association Bazois bellemain Bertin bordelage bordelier Bourbonnais bourgeois cadastre cattle census Château-Chinon Cheverry Clamecy communaute communaute taisible commune contracts coresidence Coutume crop rotations crops customary law daughters decades Decize decline demands département division domaine Donziais Dupin economic existence extended family fallow family structure farmers farmland fermage fermiers Francois Francois Quesnay francs Guillaumin hectares holdings household organization household structure hundred increased individual inheritance Jaults Jean joint family joint household labor land landlords landowners Larochemillay leases LePlay Limanton Limanton tenants listed livres Loire male manorial marriage married metayage metayers Morvan Moulins-Engilbert Napoleonic Code naute Nevers Nievre nineteenth century Nivernais oxen parents Paris pasture peasant families percent Percentage Pierre plowing proprietors province Prye region residing Revolution seigneur seventeenth century share sharecroppers social society stem families strategy succession Table taille tenant households tenure traditional Yonne