Farm Buildings: A Compilation of Plans for General Farm Barns, Cattle Barns, Dairy Barns, Horse Barns, Sheep Folds, Swine Pens, Poultry Houses, Silos, Feeding Racks, Farm Gates, Sheds, Portable Fences, Concrete Construction, Handy Devices, Etc

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Sanders, 1911 - Farm buildings - 354 pages
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Page 213 - ... of the clayey materials. The burning takes place at a high temperature, approaching 3,000 F., and must therefore be carried on in kilns of special design and lining. During the burning, combination of the lime with silica, alumina, and iron oxide takes place. The product of the burning is a semifused mass called clinker, and consists of silicates, aluminates, and ferrites of lime in certain definite proportions.
Page 213 - Portland cement is produced by burning a finely ground artificial mixture containing essentially lime, silica., alumina, and iron oxide, in certain definite proportions. Usually this combination is made by mixing limestone or marl with clay or shale, in which case...
Page 334 - ... one filled with water. Add five gallons of hot water to the mixture, stir it well, and let it stand a few days covered from the dirt.
Page 213 - Portland, and commonly at a much lower temperature, the mass of rock in the kiln never being heated high enough to even approach the fusing or clinkering point.
Page 213 - The cementing materials included under this name are made by mixing powdered slaked lime with either a volcanic ash or a blast-furnace slag. The product is therefore simply a mechanical mixture of two ingredients, as the mixture is not burned at any stage of the process. After mixing, the mixture is finely ground.
Page 212 - During the burning the carbon dioxide of the limestone is almost entirely driven off, and the lime combines with the silica, alumina, and iron oxide, forming a mass containing silicates, aluminates, and ferrites of lime. If the original limestone contained much magnesium carbonate the burned rock will contain a corresponding amount of magnesia.
Page 212 - Natural cements are produced by burning a naturally impure limestone, containing from 15 to 40 per cent of silica, alumina, and iron oxide, at a comparatively low temperature, usually about that of ordinary lime burning.
Page 213 - Portland, the mass in the kiln never being heated high enough to even approach the fusing or clinkeriug point. 3. Natural cements, after burning and grinding, are usually yellow to brown in color and light in weight...
Page 212 - After grinding, if the resulting powder (natural cement) be mixed with water it will harden rapidly. This hardening or setting will also take place under water. Natural cements differ from ordinary limes in two noticeable ways : 1. The burned mass does not slack on the addition of water. 2. The powder has hydraulic properties, ie, if properly prepared, it will set under water.
Page 212 - The hydraulic cements are those which set when used under water, though the different kinds differ greatly in the extent to which they possess this property, which is due to the formation during manufacture of compounds of lime with silica, alumina, and iron oxide. On heating a pure limestone...

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