Feed Management in Intensive Aquaculture

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Springer Science & Business Media, Dec 31, 1995 - Science - 194 pages
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""" This book has been written as a guide to the management and use of formulated feeds in intensive fish and shrimp culture. While its focus is on the use of commercially pro duced feeds in intensive production systems, it is anticipated that many of the practical issues covered will be of equal interest to those fish farmers who make their own feeds and to those who use formulated feeds in less intensive systems. Feeds and feeding are the major variable operating costs in intensive aquaculture and the book is primarily in tended to aid decision making by fish farm managers in areas of feeding policy. The dramatic increases in aquaculture production seen over the past 15 years have been made possible, in large part, by gains in our understanding of the food and feed ing requirements of key fish and shrimp species. A global aquaculture feeds industry has developed and a wide range of specialist feeds is now sold. The new options in feeds and feeding systems, which are becoming available, necessitate continual review by farmers of their feeding policies, where choices must be made as to appropriate feed types and feeding methods. While growth rates and feed conversion values are the prime factors of interest to farmers, other important issues, such as product quality and environmental impacts of farm effiuents, are also directly related to feed management practices.
 

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Contents

Feeds in Intensive Aquaculture
1
INTENSIFICATION
2
PRODUCTION SYSTEMS
5
INTENSIFICATION IN SHRIMP AQUACULTURE
7
FEED DEVELOPMENT
10
FEED INGREDIENTS
15
AQUACULTURE FEEDS AND THE ENVIRONMENT
18
INDUSTRY GROWTH
19
MOIST FEEDS
100
DRY FEEDS
101
MAINTENANCE OF FEEDSTOCKS
108
LOSS OF VITAMINS
110
ADVENTITIOUS TOXINS
111
OIL RANCIDITY
113
REFERENCES
115
Feeding Methods
117

REFERENCES
21
Feeding and Diet
23
FEEDING BEHAVIOR
25
DIGESTION
27
REFERENCES
31
Dietary Requirements
35
PROTEIN
36
LIPIDS
38
CARBOHYDRATES
41
MINERALS
42
ENERGY
43
REFERENCES
48
Feeding Temperature and Water Quality
51
TEMPERATURE
52
OXYGEN
54
OXYGEN REQUIREMENTS AND FEEDING
58
FEEDING AND METABOLIC RATE
59
OXYGEN DEPLETION
60
WATER EXCHANGE AND AERATION
62
FISH FARM WASTES
63
CONTROL OF WASTES
72
REFERENCES
73
Feed Types and Uses
75
WET FEEDS
76
WET AND MOIST FORMULATED FEEDS
78
DRY FEEDS
82
COMMERCIAL FEED TYPES
86
REFERENCES
97
Feed Handling and Storage
99
FEEDING METHODS
118
FEEDING METHODS FOR SHRIMP
131
FEEDING METHODS AND GROWTH VARIATION
136
REFERENCES
137
Feed Rations and Schedules
139
RATIONS AND GROWTH
140
GROWTHRATION CURVES
142
ESTIMATING RATION SIZE
143
FOOD PARTICLE SIZE
147
FEEDING FREQUENCY
150
FEEDING PERIOD
151
COMPENSATORY FEEDING
152
REFERENCES
155
Performance Measures
159
MEASUREMENTS
161
GROWTH PATTERNS
165
GROWTH RECORDING
166
GROWTH PREDICTION
169
CONDITION FACTORS
170
SURVIVAL
171
FOOD CONVERSION
174
ASSESSING QUALITY
175
DIETS AND FLESH QUALITY
178
Cost Factors
181
SELECTING FEEDS
182
COSTEFFECTIVE RATIONS
187
REFERENCES
188
Index
189
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