Female Gladiators: Gender, Law, and Contact Sport in America

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University of Illinois Press, Oct 1, 2010 - Sports & Recreation - 232 pages
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Female Gladiators examines the legal and social history of the right of women to participate with men in contact sports. The impetus to begin legal proceedings was the 1972 enactment of Title IX, which prohibited discrimination in educational settings, but it was the Equal Protection Clause of the U.S. Constitution and the equal rights amendments of state constitutions that ultimately opened doors. Despite court rulings, however, many in American society resisted--and continue to resist--allowing girls in dugouts and other spaces traditionally defined as male territories. When the leagues continued to bar girls simply because they were not boys, the girls went to court. Sarah K. Fields examines the legal and cultural conflicts over gender and contact sports that continue to rage today.
 

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Contents

1 The History of American Women in Sport Society and Law
1
2 Baseball
17
3 Football
34
4 Basketball
55
5 Soccer
83
6 Wrestling
102
7 Boxing
121
8 Boys on Girls Field Hockey Teams
132
9 Wrapping Up Contact Sports
154
Timeline of Laws and Major Cases
169
Notes
173
Index
203
Copyright

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About the author (2010)

Sarah K. Fields, an assistant professor in Sport Humanities at The Ohio State University, was the only girl on a second-grade soccer team in St. Louis, Missouri. Contact sports continue to be a major part of her life.

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