## Femtophysics: A Short Course on Particle PhysicsProvides an account of what is now known about physics at scales of 1013 to 1016 cm. The existence of spin half quarks interacting through colour fields is established fact, as is the structure unifying electromagnetic and weak interaction. In Femtophysics, the author explains the evidence and communicates the essential physics underlying these recent and remarkable developments. The approach throughout is to obtain results by applying trivial algebra to the content of simple and clear physical pictures. Thus, abstract and difficult concepts can be mastered painlessly while maintaining a firm grip on the essentials. The diligent student, therefore, should acquire a comprehensive understanding of the principles underlying present day particle physics. |

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### Contents

1 | |

11 | |

Chapter 3 Strangers in town | 21 |

Chapter 4 Hadrons | 29 |

Chapter 5 Colour Confinement and Strings | 41 |

Chapter 6 Lepton Probes | 57 |

Chapter 7 Golden Rules | 69 |

Chapter 8 Fermions and the Dirac Equation | 83 |

Chapter 13 Chromodynamics of HadronsGround State Baryons and Isoscalar Mesons | 145 |

Chapter 14 Massive Fermions | 157 |

Chapter 15 Weak Interactions of Quarks | 171 |

Chapter 16 The unUnified Electroweak Interaction | 183 |

Final Remarks | 195 |

Some Recent Results | 198 |

Units | 199 |

Glossary | 201 |

### Common terms and phrases

amplitudes angular momentum antiparticles antiquark baryons beams bosons branching ratio Calculate centre of mass chromomagnetic coefﬁcients collider colour charges colour ﬁelds colour singlet component conﬁguration conﬁned conserved cos2 coulomb coupling constant cross section decay rate decuplet deep inelastic scattering deﬁned deﬁnition density diagrams Dirac equation distribution doublet eigenstates electromagnetic electron exchange exist factor Fermi fermions ﬁnal ﬁnd ﬁnite ﬂavour ﬂux gluon hadrons helicity high energy hyperﬁne identiﬁed inﬁnite invariant left handed particle lepton light quarks Lorentz magnetic mass energy massless matrix element mesons multiplet muon neutrino neutron normalisation nuclear nucleon obtained octet operation pair particle physics partons phase space pion plane wave potential problem proton relative relativistic resonance right handed s-wave scalar sin2 spin strange quark string strong interactions structure functions symmetric three quark triplet valence quarks vector wave function weak interactions weak isospin width zero