Fermentation Microbiology and Biotechnology, Second Edition

Front Cover
E. M. T. El-Mansi, C. F. A. Bryce, Arnold L. Demain, A.R. Allman
CRC Press, Oct 25, 2006 - Technology & Engineering - 576 pages
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The pace of progress in fermentation microbiology and biotechnology is fast and furious, with new applications being implemented that are resulting in a spectrum of new products, from renewable energy to solvents and pharmaceuticals

Fermentation Microbiology and Biotechnology, Second Edition builds on the foundation of the original seminal work, extending its reach to reflect the multidisciplinary and expansive nature of fermentation research and advancements. While retaining valuable information from the previous edition including a brief history of the industry, as well as an overview of instrumentation and fermentor design, fermentation kinetics, and flux control analysis, the second edition addresses numerous topics that have risen to prominence in the past few years.

New chapters explore the diverse array of microbial biosynthetic pathways currently used by the fermentation and pharmaceutical industries for the production of primary and secondary metabolites such as amino acids, vitamins, antibiotics, immunosuppressants, and anti-tumor agents. The authors also examine recent advances in enzyme and co-factor engineering and cell immobilization with respect to both novel drug development and improved yields from microbial processes.

Beyond pharmaceuticals, this volume considers the emerging role of fermentation in the conversion of renewable resources to fine chemicals, as well as its potential use in converting lignocellulosic waste to ethanol. In addition, readers will also discover new chapters devoted to discussions of industrial issues such as modeling and sensor technology, as well as supervision and control in the fermentation process.

The text is packed with examples and case studies from the industry, carefully chosen to illuminate and reinforce principles and methodology discussed in the chapters. Organized and written in a concise and lucid manner that requires only a general background in microbiology, this volume meets the needs

 

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Contents

Fermentation Microbiology and Biotechnology An Historical Perspective
1
13 Developments in metabolic and biochemical engineering
4
14 Discovery of antibiotics and genetic engineering
6
15 The rise and fall of single cell protein
7
17 Impact of functional genomics proteomics metabolomics and bioinformatics on the scope and future prospects of fermentation microbiology and ...
8
References
9
Microbiology of Industrial Fermentation
11
22 Chemical synthesis of bacterial protoplasmbiomass
12
932 Klebsiella oxytoca
264
933 Zymomonas mobilis
265
94 Genetically engineered yeast
268
942 Pichia stipitis
273
943 Pichia pastoris
275
95 Microbes producing ethanol from lignocellulose
277
Conclusions
278
Summary
279

222 Anaplerotic pathways
14
223 Polymerization and assembly
16
231 The lag phase
18
232 The exponential phase
20
23 3 Stationary phase and cell death
24
234 Maintenance and survival
26
24 Diauxic growth
29
25 Growth yield in relation to carbon and energy contents of growth substrates
30
26 Fermentation balances
31
262 Redox balance
32
272 Metabolite excretion and efficiency of central metabolism
34
28 Continuous cultivation of microorganisms
35
29 Current advances and innovations in the fermentation and pharmaceutical industry
36
210 Microbial fermentations and the production of biopharmaceuticals
37
Summary
42
References
43
Suggested reading
46
Fermentation Kinetics
47
32 Framework for kinetic models
49
321 Stoichiometry
51
322 Reaction rates
53
323 Yield coefficients and linear rate equations
55
324 The black box model
63
Elemental balances in a simple black box model
67
33 Mass balances for bioreactors
68
331 Dynamic mass balances
69
332 The batch reactor
73
333 The chemostat
74
334 The fedbatch reactor
76
34 Kinetic models
77
341 The degree of model complexity
78
342 Unstructured models
79
The Monod model
81
343 Compartment models
84
A twocompartment model
85
344 Singlecell models
88
345 Molecular mechanistic models
89
35 Population models
91
351 Morphologically structured models
92
352 Population balance equations
93
Age distribution model
94
Summary
95
Microbial Synthesis of Primary Metabolites Current Advances and Future Prospects
99
42 Control of primary metabolism
100
423 Nitrogen source regulation NSR
101
425 Sulfur source regulation
102
426 Feedback regulation
103
43 Approaches to strain improvements
104
44 Production of primary metabolites
106
442 Production processes forpurines and pyrimidines their nucleosides and nucleotides
117
443 Production processes for vitamins
120
444 Production processes for organic acids
122
445 Production of ethanol and related compounds
126
Summary
129
Microbial Synthesis of Secondary Metabolites and Strain Improvement
131
52 The economics and scale of microbial product fermentations
132
53 Different products need different fermentation processes
133
54 Fedbatch culture the paradigm for many efficient microbial processes
135
541 Nutrient limitation and the onset of secondary metabolite formation
136
542 The role of quorum sensing and extracellular signals in the initiation of secondary metabolism and morphological differentiation in actinomycetes
138
543 Positive activators of antibiotic expression
139
The random empirical approach
141
The power of recombination in strain construction
143
58 Directed screening for mutants with altered metabolism
145
59 Recombinant DNA approaches to strain improvement for lowand mediumvalue products
150
510 Strain improvement for highvalue recombinant products
153
Summary
156
Metabolic Analysis and Optimization of Microbial and Animal Cell Bioprocesses
159
62 Secondary product fermentations
162
622 Demethylchlortetracyclines
163
623 A novel cyclic octodepsipeptide
165
624 Zeaxanthin
166
63 Microbial production of industrial enzymes
168
632 Protease fermentations
169
633 Cellulase fermentations
172
634 Solidstate fermentations the renaissance of an old technology?
173
64 Animal cells and recombinant protein production in bioreactors
174
642 Animal cells in bioreactors
176
65 Future prospects
180
Summary
182
Flux Control Analysis Basic Principles and Industrial Applications
187
basic principles
189
722 The summation theorem
191
723 Elasticity coefficient
192
724 The connectivity theorem
193
725 Response coefficients
194
731 The model
196
74 Modeling using other computer programs
202
75 Strategies for manipulating carbon fluxes en route to product formation in intermediary metabolism
204
752 Modulation of carbon flux en route to product formation
205
76 Conversion of feedstock to biomass and desirable end products
208
762 Formulation of metabolic flux modelscharts
209
Summary
212
Acknowledgment
214
Enzyme and Cofactor Engineering and Their Applications in the Pharmaceutical and Fermentation Industries
217
82 Types of major industrial enzymes and desired modifications
218
822 Hydrolytic enzymes
219
823 Specialty enzymes
220
824 Alteration of physical parameters of enzymes for process applications
221
83 Summary of methods in enzyme engineering
222
833 3D structure and specific mutations
224
834 Random directed evolution methods
225
84 Modification of pharmaceutical properties of protein agents
226
85 Modification of enzymes for in vivo biosynthetic processes
229
86 Cofactor engineering
230
861 NADH vs NADPH specificity of enzymes
231
862 Manipulation of NADH in vivo
232
863 CoA compounds
234
Summary
236
References
237
Application of Metabolic Engineering to the Conversion of Renewable Resources to Fuels and Fine Chemicals Current Advances and Future Prospects
249
92 Pentose fermentation
258
93 Genetically engineered bacteria
259
Cell Immobilization and Its Applications in Biotechnology Current Trends and Future Prospects
287
102 Immobilized cell systems
288
10 22 Entrapment within porous matrices
290
10221 Hydrogel entrapment
291
1022 2 Preformed support materials
303
1023 Containment behind a barrier
304
10231 Microencapsulation
307
10232 Cell immobilization using membranes
309
1024 Selfaggregation of cells
313
103 Design of immobilized cell reactors
315
10312 Diffusion in immobilized cell systems
316
10313 External mass transfer
317
1032 Reaction and diffusion in immobilized cell systems
319
1033 Bioreactor design
324
104 Physiology of immobilized microbial cells
325
1041 Bacterial cells
328
1042 Fungal cells
332
A case study
333
1052 Production of alcoholfree or lowalcohol beer
337
Summary
340
Acknowledgments
341
Biosensors in Bioprocess Monitoring and Control Current Trends and Future Prospects
363
113 Overview of transduction methods
366
Enzymes as biological sensing elements
368
Antibodies as biological detection elements
370
116 Immobilization of the biological recognition element
373
117 Amperometric biosensors based on redox enzymes
375
118 Potentiometric biosensors and enzyme field effect transistor ENFET
380
119 Thermal biosensors
382
1110 Optical biosensors based on redox enzymes
383
Optical and electrical biosensors based on antibodies
384
1112 Direct affinity detection using surface plasmon resonance and piezoelectric biosensors
385
A case study
388
The glucose meter
391
11132 Enzymes used in glucose biosensors
392
11133 Mediated electrochemistry
396
References
399
Fermentors Design Operation and Applications
407
123 Component parts of a typical vessel
408
124 Peripheral parts and accessories
409
1242 Medium feed pumps and reservoir bottles
410
1244 Sampling device
411
1252 Fluidized bed immobilized and solidstate systems
412
1253 Hollow fiber
413
1255 Containment
414
1261 Digital controllers embedded microprocessor
415
127 Common measurement and control systems
416
1273 Control of gas supply
418
1274 Control of pH
419
1275 Control of dissolved oxygen
420
1276 Antifoam control
421
128 Additional sensors
422
1281 Redox
423
1282 Air flow
424
1285 Online measurement of biomass
425
129 Simple continuous culture
426
12102 Exit gas analysis
429
12103 Substrate sensors
431
1211 Fermentor preparation and use
432
12113 Preparations for autoclaving
433
12114 Autoclaving
435
12116 Inoculation of a fermentor vessel
437
12118 Routine maintenance of fermentor components
439
1212 Major types of organisms used in fermentation
441
12122 Plant cells
443
12124 Algae
444
1213 Subfermentor systems a new approach
445
12131 Parallel small fermentor systems
446
1214 Solutions to common problems in fermentation
447
12142 Contamination problems
448
Summary
449
References and suggested reading
450
Control of Fermentations An Industrial Perspective
451
1312 Nature of control
452
132 Sensors
453
1322 Typical fermentation sensors
454
1323 Control action
456
133 Controllers
457
1332 Control algorithms
458
134 Design of a fermentation control system
460
1342 Fermentation computer control system architecture
463
1343 Fermentation plant safety
465
1353 Vessel states
467
1354 Sequence logic
468
136 Control of incubation
472
1361 Specification for incubation control
473
137 Advanced incubation control
479
1372 Eventtracking control
480
1373 Boolean control and rule generation
484
1374 Summary of event and nonstable setpoint control
486
1381 Knowledgebased systems KBSs
487
1384 Modeling
488
1392 Expansion of the capability of DDC instrumentation
489
1393 Use of common communication protocols
490
Acknowledgments
491
Modeling Software Sensors Control and Supervision of Fermentation Processes
493
142 The model system
494
1421 Offline measurements
495
1422 Online measurements
496
1431 Unstructured models
497
1432 Behavioral models
499
144 Adaptive techniques
503
1441 Estimation and software sensors
504
1442 Control
506
145 Supervision for process control
508
1451 Classification
509
1452 Fault detection and isolation FDI
513
146 Conclusions
518
Summary
520
Suppliers List
523
Fermentation Equipment
524
Index
525
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