Fiber Bragg Gratings

Front Cover
Academic Press, 1999 - Technology & Engineering - 458 pages
2 Reviews
Optical fibers have revolutionized telecommunication, becoming the most widely used and the most efficient device for relaying information over long distances. While the market for optical fiber continues to grow, the next stage in the field of communication is the mass delivery of integrated services, such as home banking, shopping, internet services, and entertainment using video on demand. The economies and performance potential will determine the type of technology likely to succeed in the provision of these services. But it is already clear that optical fibers will play a crucial role in communication systems of the future. The opportunities provided by fiber Bragg gratings are of enormous importance for the further development of the fiber optic communication lines as cost-effective and efficient devices of the future.
Fiber Bragg Gratings is the result of a growing demand for focused and reliable information on the subject. It brings together the fundamentals of fiber gratings, their specific characterizations, and numerous applications. In addition to researchers, scientists, and graduate students, it will be of interest to industrial practitioners in the field of fabrication of fiber optic materials and devices. It begins with the principles of fiber Bragg grating, from photosensitization of optical fibers, Bragg grating fabrication, theory, properties of grating, specific application, and concludes with measurement techniques.


* Addresses one of the most promising fields for future development in applied optics
* First book ever on the subject of fiber Bragg gratings
* Written by a pioneer in the field of optical communications
* Covers topics important to both research and industry
* Discusses theory, practical applications, and measurement
 

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Contents

Introduction
1
11 Historical perspective
2
12 Materials for glass fibers
4
13 Origins of the refractive index of glass
6
14 Overview of chapters
8
References
10
Photosensitivity and Photosensitization of Optical Fibers
13
21 Photorefractivity and photosensitivity
14
524 Multiple printing of infiber gratings applied to apodization
206
525 Positionweighted fabrication of tophat reflection gratings
208
526 The moving fiberphase mask technique
211
527 The symmetric stretch apodization method
216
53 Fabrication requirements for apodization and chirp
221
References
223
Fiber Grating Bandpass Filters
227
61 Distributed feedback FabryPerot superstructure and moire gratings
229

22 Defects in glass
16
23 Detection of defects
19
24 Photosensitization techniques
20
241 Germaniumdoped silica fibers
21
242 Germaniumboron codoped silicate fibers
27
243 Tingermanium codoped fibers
29
245 Rareearthdoped fibers
34
25 Densification and stress in fibers
35
26 Summary of photosensitive mechanisms in germanosilicate fibers
36
27 Summary of routes to photosentization
38
271 Summary of optically induced effects
42
References
44
Fabrication of Bragg Gratings
55
312 The phase mask
57
313 The phase mask interferometer
62
314 Slanted grating
69
315 The scanned phase mask interferometer
71
316 The Lloyd mirror and prism interferometer
74
317 Higher spatial order masks
77
318 Pointbypoint writing
80
3110 Singleshot writing of gratings
83
3111 Longperiod grating fabrication
84
3112 Ultralongfiber gratings
85
FabryPerot and superstructure gratings
88
3114 Fabrication of continuously chirped gratings
93
3115 Fabrication of stepchirped gratings
99
32 Type II gratings
101
34 Sources for holographic writing of gratings
102
342 High coherence sources
104
References
108
Theory of Fiber Bragg Gratings
119
41 Wave Propagation
121
411 Waveguides
122
42 Coupledmode theory
125
421 Spatially periodic refractive index modulation
127
422 Phase matching
130
423 Mode symmetry and the overlap integral
131
424 Spatially periodic non sinusoidal retractive index modulation
133
425 Types of mode coupling
134
43 Coupling of counterpropagating guided modes
142
44 Codirectional coupling
145
Rocking filters
148
46 Properties of uniform Bragg gratings
152
461 Phase and group delay of uniform period gratings
155
47 Radiation mode couplers
157
Long period gratings
171
48 Grating simulation
178
482 Transfer matrix method
179
49 Multilayer analysis
185
492 The multiple thinfilm stack
186
References
189
Apodization of Fiber Gratings
195
51 Apodization shading functions
197
52 Basic principles and methodology
199
521 Selfapodization
200
522 The amplitude mask
203
523 The variable diffraction efficiency phase mask
205
612 Superstructure bandpass filter
239
62 The FabryPerot and moire bandpass filters
242
63 The Michelson interferometer bandpass filter
246
631 The asymmetric Michelson multiple bandpuss filter
255
64 The MachZehnder interferometer bandpass filter
260
641 Optical adddrop multiplexers based on the GMZIBPF
263
65 The optical circulator based OADM
265
651 Reconfigurable OADM
270
66 The polarizing beam splitter bandpass filter
272
67 Incoupler Bragg grating filters
276
671 Bragg reflecting coupler OADM
278
672 Gratingfrustrated coupler
284
68 Sidetap and longperiod grating bandpass filters
288
69 Polarization rocking bandpass filter
293
610 Mode converters
297
References
300
Chirped Fiber Bragg Gratings
311
71 General characteristics of chirped gratings
312
72 Chirped and stepchirped gratings
317
721 Effect of apodization
324
722 Effect of nonimiform refractive index modulation on grating period
330
73 Superstepchirped gratings
332
74 Polarization mode dispersion in chirped gratings
336
75 Systems measurements with DCGs
339
751 Systems simulations and chirped grating performance
342
76 Other applications of chirped gratings
346
References
347
Fiber Grating Lasers and Amplifiers
355
82 Static and dynamic properties of FGLs
362
821 Modeling of external cavity lasers
366
822 General comments on FGLs
369
83 The fiber Bragg grating rareearth doped fiber laser
370
84 Erbiumdoped fiber lasers
372
841 Singlefrequency erbiumdoped fiber lasers
374
85 The distributed feedback fiber laser
377
851 Multifrequency sources
379
852 Timablo singlefrequency sources
380
87 Fiber grating resonant Raman amplifiers
383
88 Gainflattening and clamping in fiber amplifiers
385
881 Amplifier gain equalization with fiber gratings
387
882 Optical gain control by gain clamping
391
883 Analysis of gaincontrolled amplifiers
395
884 Cavity stability
396
885 Noise figure
397
References
398
Measurement and Characterization of Gratings
409
transmission spectra of Bragg gratings
410
92 Perfect Bragg gratings
417
93 Phase and temporal response of Bragg gratings
418
931 Measurement of the grating profile
426
932 Measurement of internal stress
432
94 Strength annealing and lifetime of gratings
435
942 Bragg grating lifetime and thermal annealing
436
943 Accelerated aging of gratings
440
References
441
Index
447
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