Field Guide to Microscopy
This guide provides extensive coverage of microscopic imaging principles. After reviewing the main principles of image formation, diffraction, interference, and polarization used in microscopy, this guide describes the most widely applied microscope configurations and applications. It also covers major system components, including light sources, illumination layouts, microscope optics, and image detection electronics. This guide also provides a comprehensive overview of microscopy techniques, including bright field and dark field imaging, contrast enhancement methods (such as phase and amplitude contrast), DIC, polarization, and fluorescence microscopy. In addition, it describes scanning techniques (such as confocal and multiphoton imaging points); new trends in super-resolution methods (such as 4Pi microscopy, STED, STORM, and structured illumination); and array microscopy, CARS, and SPIM.
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Airy disk Amici lens angle aperture stop axial back focal plane birefringent bright chromatic aberrations coherence length color components Condenser Lens confocal microscopy conjugate cont cover glass dark-field defined depth of field detector differential interference contrast diffraction direction distance electrons emission equation evanescent wave excitation exit pupil eyepiece Field Guide field of view field stop filters fluorescence Fluorophore focal length fringe grating Image Plane image space incidence intensity interferometer Kohler illumination laser lenses light source located magnification microscope objective multi-photon numerical aperture Object Plane optical axis optical system parameters perpendicular phase contrast phase delay phase difference Phase Object phase plate phase ring phase shift photons pinhole pixel polarization propagation pulse ratio rays refractive index resolution limit retardation rotated sample scanning sensor shear slit solid immersion spatial frequency Strehl ratio techniques telecentric thickness total internal reflection tube length tube lens vector wavefronts wavelength Wollaston Prism