Field Engineering: A Hand-book of the Theory and Practice of Railway Surveying, Location, and Construction, Designed for the Class-room, Field, and Office, and Containing a Large Number of Useful Tables, Original and Selected

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Contents

Leveller
13
Rodmen
14
The level
15
The clinometer
16
Transit points
17
Obstacles to alignment and measurement
18
General problem
19
Lines at a large angle
20
Selection of angles
21
Rocky shores Tielines
22
System of plotting map
23
Engine traction
25
Engine expense
26
Formulae for resistance
29
Enginestage
30
CO Graphical solution
32
Train load reciprocals
33
Assisting engines
36
Maximum return grades
37
Undulating grades
38
Value of distance saved
39
Levellers duties Profiling
40
Establishing grade lines
41
CHAPTER V
42
Radius and degree of curve
43
Measurement of curves
44
Central angle and length of curve
45
Definition of other elements 4f1 90 Formula for tangent distance T
46
Formula for long chord C
48
Formula for radius in terms of T and A
49
Formula for external distance in terms of T and A
50
Deflection angles
52
Rule for deflections
53
Subchords
54
Correction for subchords
55
Ratio of correction to excess of arc
58
Location of Curves by Offsets 112 Four methods 89
59
Do beginning with a subchord
60
Formula for subchord offsets approximate
61
Do beginning with a subchord
62
Do beginning with a subchord
64
Do for an even number of stations
66
Do for an even number of half stations
67
Obstacles to the Location of Curves
69
The vertex inaccessible 09
70
The point of tangent inaccessible
71
To pass an obstacle on a curve
72
To find the change in R and E for a given change in T
73
To and the change in R and T for a given change in E
74
To find the change in T and E for a given change in R
75
To find a new point of curve for a parallel tangent
76
To find new P C and new radius for a parallel tangent
77
SECTION PAGE 139 To find new tangent points for two parallel tangents
78
To Iind new R and P C for new tangent at same P T
80
To find new P C for a new tangent from same vertex
81
To Iind new R and P C for same external distance but new A
82
To find a curve to pass through a given point
83
To find new radius for a given radial offset
84
Equation of the valvoid
86
To find direction of a tangent to the valvoid at any point
87
To find the radius of curvature of the valvoid at any point
88
To find new position of any stake for a new radius from same P C
89
To find new radius from same P C for new position of any station
92
To find distance on any line between tangent and curve
93
To find a tangent to pass through a distant point
94
To find a line tangent to two curves
96
To find a line tangent to two curves reversed
98
Study of location on preliminary map Templets Table of con venient curves
100
CHAPTER VI
102
The locus of the point of compound curve
103
The inscribed circle of the principal radii
104
B General Equations 161 Formula for radii central angles and sides
105
Giveni Sx S2 A and to find Ax A2andi?2
106
Giveni AB VAB VBA and R to find A2 Aiand7?x
107
Giveni iit At72a A 2l to find the triangle VAB
108
Giveni one side radius and central angle to find the others
110
Remarks on special cases Ill 168 Obstacles the P C C inaccessible
112
Special Problems in Compound Curves 109 To find a new P C C for a parallel tangent
113
To find a new P C C and last radius for a parallel tangent
115
To find the reversed curve for parallel siding in terms of f and perpendicular distance p
169
To and the connecting curve from frog to parallel siding on a curve in terms of and perpendicular distance p
170
a The siding outside of main track
171
To find a new P C C and last radius ii for new direction of tangent through same P T 121
172
To locate a reversed curve crossing between straight tracks
173
To locate a reversed curve crossing between curved tracks
174
To and the middle ordinate m for one station in terms of D
175
Curving rails To and wn in terms of rail and m
176
To and elevation of outer rail on curves
177
To and a chord whose middle ordinate equals the proper eleva tion
179
General remarks on coned wheels
180
CHAPTER VIII
181
Height of instrument H I
182
Rule for backsights and foresights
183
Proales
184
Simple levelling test levels
185
Errors due to curvature of the earth
186
Errors due to refraction
187
Levelling by transit or theodolite
188
To and the H I by observation of the horizon
189
Stadia measurements horizontal sights
191
Stadia measurements inclined sights vertical rod
193
Stadia measurements inclined sights inclined rod
195
CHAPTER IX
196
Clearing and grubbing
197
Cross sections formulae for
198
Cross sections staking out
200
S32 Cross sections on irregular ground
201
Compound cross sections
203
17 Form ot crosssection book
204
Extended cross profiles
205
Isolated masses
206
Officework
207
Drains and culverts
208
Arch culverts
209
Foundation pits Bridge chords on curves
210
Cattleguards
214
Tunnelsi Location Alignment Shafts Curves Levels Grades Sections Rate of progress Ventilation Drain age
216
Retracing the line
222
Side ditches and drains
223
CHAPTER X
225
Formulae for sectional areas
227
Prismoidal formula? for solid contents
229
Tables of quantities in cubic yards
231
Formula for equivalent depth in terms of slope angle
232
Conditions necessary for correct results in use of tables
233
Exact calculation of content examples
234
Wedges and pyramids
236
Sidehill sections irregular ground
237
Systems of diagrams
238
Correction for curvature In earthwork
239
Haul Centre of gravity of prismoid
243
Final estimate
245
Monthly estimates
246
Artificial features 348
248
Geometrical Propositions
271
Curve Formula
277
Radii Offsets and Ordinates
280
Corrections for Tangents and Externals
287
Tangents and Externals to a OneDegree Curve
289
Long Chords and Actual Arcs
293
Middle Ordinates to Long Chords
298
Linear De4lections 801
301
Middle Ordinates for Rails 804
304
Grades and Grade Angles 805
305
Barometric Heights in feet
308
Correction for Earths Curvature and Refraction 809
308
Minutes in Decimals of a Degree 813
311
Inches in Decimals of a Foot 814
312
Squares Cubes Roots and Reciprocals 815
333
Logarithmic Sines Cosines Tangents and Cotangents
359
Logarithmic Versed Sines and External Secants
404
Natural Sines and Cosines
451
Natural Tangents and Cotangents
460
Natural Versed Sines and External Secants
476
Cubic Yards per 100 Feet in Level Prismoids
493
Useful Numbers and Formulae 300
502
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