Field Fortifications, Etc.: a Text-book for the Use of the Cadets of the United States Military Acadeemy at West Point, N.Y.

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D. Van Nostrand, 1880 - Fortification, Field - 240 pages
 

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Contents

CHAPTER II
15
The berm
18
The principal lines of the profile
19
CHAPTER III
21
Definition of the terms command and relief
22
Width and height of banquette
24
Inclination given to the interior slope
25
Inclination given to the superior slope
27
Inclination of the exterior slope
28
The uses and the dimensions of a ditch
29
Slope of scarp and counterscarp
30
Method used in practice
32
The normal profile of a field fortification
33
CHAPTER IV
34
troops may be exposed
35
The salient and reentering angles of a trace
36
The reasons for observing these principles
37
CHAPTER V
39
ARTICLE PAGB 40 Open and halfclosed field works
41
Lunettes
42
Closed field works
43
Star redoubts
44
Bastioned forts
47
Flanked dispositions
48
Relations existing between the different parts of a bas tioned front
49
The least and the greatest exterior sides that can be used in bastioned fronts
51
Defects to be found in a bastioned fort
52
Defects of star forts
53
CHAPTER VI
54
Different kinds of continued lines
55
5 Redan line
57
Bastioned lines
58
Lines with Intervals 63 The positions occupied by the field works forming a line with intervals
59
Third line
61
The advantages and defects of lines with intervals com pared with other kinds of lines
62
The size to give to a field work
64
The number of the garrison to defend a field work
65
The amount of space to be enclosed
66
The relation between the space and the length of inte rior crest of a square redoubt when the number of the garrison is known
67
The things to be observed in the selection of trace
69
CHAPTER VIII
72
Construction of Field Works 71 The operation known as tracing
73
The method employed to construct the parapet
76
The time which is required to build a field work
78
CHAPTER IX
81
Fascines and their construction
82
Fascine revetments
83
Gabions aud their construction
85
Hurdle revetments
87
Revetments of timber
88
Revetments made of planks
89
Revetments made with casks barrels etc
90
Sod revetments and their construction
92
Pisa revetment and its construction
93
be defiladed
96
Plane of defilade and its use
97
The amount of area to be defiladed
98
The method used to obtain the position of the plane of defilade
99
Front and reverse defilade
102
Methods used to defilade a work from reverse fires
104
The method used to determine the position of the plane of reverse defilade
106
Direct and oblique embrasures
124
Comparative advantages and defects pertaining to bar bette and embrasure fires
125
Loopholes and their object
126
Traverses their kind and their construction
128
Construction of splinterproof traverses
130
Platforms for artillery in field works
132
rison
135
Method of constructing bombproofs
136
Blindages
138
Powder magazines
139
Service magazines their construction
141
Gunshelters
143
Example of a bomb proof used in the field works sur rounding the city of Washington in 18615
144
Example of a powder magazine used in the same works
145
The position to be given to shelters of this class in a field work
146
Passages leading Into a field work and where placed
148
Barriers to close the passages
151
Bridges to cross the ditch
153
Kamps their uses and dimensions
154
Arrangements for the Comfort and Health of the Garrison 129 Nature of the arrangements to be made
155
Arrangements of a secondary kind
156
Blockhouses their dimensions and uses
157
Isolated blockhouses
160
Stockades
161
Arrangements made Exterior to the Parapet 134 Different kinds used exterior to a parapet
166
Caponnieres
167
Scarp and counterscarp galleries
168
Two classes of obstacles
170
Abatis
172
Entanglements
173
Che vauxdef rise
174
Fraises
175
Revetments of other kinds 94
176
Slashing of limber
177
Torpedoes
178
Stonefougasses
179
Shellfougasses
181
General uses of military obstacles
182
CHAPTER XIII
184
Three cases
185
Modification of the trace
188
Defence of steep slopes
190
Defence of precipitous slopes
191
Bridge Heads
192
ARTICIJt FAOK 161 Bridgehead its meaning
193
Strong bridgeheads their use
195
Bridgeheads called horn works crown works etc
197
Hasty Intrenchments 165 Hasty defences
200
Construction of sheltertrenches
201
Use of sheltertrenches as covered communications
203
Trace of a shelter trench
204
Shelters for artillery or cavalry
206
Defence of a house
207
Tambours
208
Machicoulis galleries
210
Use of stone walls hedges etc in defence
211
The preservation and destruction of roads
213
CHAPTER XV
221
Open assault three periods of
222
The operations of the second period
224
Attack by surprise
226

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Page 4 - Thomas's troops. The hour was fixed, and all the details given in Field Orders, No. 28, of June 24. On the 2Hh of June the two assaults were made at the time and in the manner prescribed, and both failed, costing us many valuable lives, among them those of Generals Harker and McCook; Colonel Rice and others badly wounded. Our aggregate loss being near 3,000, while we inflicted comparatively little loss to the enemy, who lay behind his wellformed breastworks.
Page 1 - France between the forts, and left a superior force " in observation," to watch the garrison and accept its surrender when the greater events of the war ahead made further resistance useless; but earth-forts, and especially field-works, will hereafter play an important part in wars, because they enable a minor force to hold a superior one in check for a time, and time is a most valuable element in all wars. It was one of Prof.
Page 5 - ... they were heavy (weighing over five pounds), they were uncomfortable, they were in every way inconvenient, but each man had learned by hard experience to feel that his individual life depended upon his musket and his spade — and he took good care to lose neither the one nor the other.
Page 89 - This (the revetment) consisted of posts from foui t;o six inches in diameter of oak, chesnut, or cedar, cut into lengths of 5| feet and set with a slope of \ in close contact in a trench, at the foot of the breast height, two feet in depth. These were sawed off sixteen inches below the crest and shaped to receive a horizontal capping piece of six-inch timber, hewed or sawed, to a half-round, as shown in the sketch." The lower ends of the posts rested upon a twoinch plank, placed in the bottom of...
Page 2 - ... Burke, was an officer of the Austrian service ; and his father, Peter Burke, Esq. of Elm Hall, in the county of Tipperary, was for many years an active magistrate for that and the King's county. In politics a moderate whig, Mr. Peter Burke held himself always aloof from the agitation going on around him, and on more than one occasion proved of great service to government in preserving the peace of his district. He lived on terms of friendship with the late and the present Earls of Rosse, with...
Page 2 - ... winter, in the course of which, many hardy warriors perished of cold, and the hands and feet of thousands became frost-bitten. At length, Charles advanced to the siege of the strong city of Pultowa, which, however, was protracted by the want of artillery, till Peter himself approached with a vast army. The battle of Pultowa, which terminated in the total defeat of the Swedish army, was now fought; all the baggage and the rich military chest fell into the hands of the enemy, and the surviving...
Page 230 - ... is brought taut, explode a percussion cap or friction tube. 4. If the enemy should open his attack by a warm cannonade, and concentrate his fire upon a particular fort, the troops should not be unnecessarily exposed to it if they can be sheltered near the posts they are to occupy when an assault is made. If the cannonade should become too warm for the garrison to reply without too much loss, the field and siege guns should be removed from their embrasures, and placed behind the parapets or, in...
Page 232 - ... gun are ascertained. Cut away the foot of scarps to render escalade more difficult, taking care not to endanger the stability of the parapet. Use earth so obtained for making a glacis and traverses across the abatis, if it be threatened by an enfilading fire. A few piles of earth across the abatis, particularly if the earth be wet, is a great security against such fire. " Commanding officers of the forts cannot be too strongly impressed with the fact that the abatis is one of the main sources...
Page 5 - This was an example of an attack in broad day against a simple infantry cover, which cost us, in killed and wounded, a number equal perhaps to that of the entire force of the enemy actually opposed to us. It was an attack of nearly two divisions against a picket line covered by a simple trench and parapet ; but had it been held by two ranks of good troops it is doubtful if it could have been carried even by an entire corps.
Page 232 - Logs, fascines, or even sticks, kid against its exposed side, greatly reduce the penetration of shot, particularly of elongated projectiles, by deflecting them. 6. Build merlons between barbette guns, and partially fill wide embrasures, as soon as the positions of the enemy's batteries and the proper direction of fire of each gun are ascertained. Cut away the foot of scarps to render escalade more difficult, taking care not to endanger the stability of the parapet. Use the earth so obtained for making...

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