Field Geology

Front Cover
McGraw-Hill, 1917 - Geology - 528 pages
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User Review  - billsearth - LibraryThing

This book was used by most colleges with a geology program for teaching field geology between about 1940 through mid-1960. The book is still pretty applicable today. Most of the book deals with mapping surface geology. Read full review

Contents

Massive Character
11
Contact Lines Mutual Relations of Contiguous Rock Masses
14
Gradational Changes in Rocks
15
Curvature of Bands or Streaks
16
Features Seen on the Surfaces of Rocks
18
Lighter Shades and White
19
Relations of Colors to Surfaces of Weakness
20
Granularity
21
Scratches Grooves and Ribs
23
Pits and Hollows
29
ROCK PARTICLES AND FRAGMENTS
34
CHARACTERS OF ROCK PARTICLES
35
Shape
36
Angular Particles
37
Subangular Particles
38
CHARACTERS OF LARGER ROCK FRAGMENTS PEBBLES ETC
39
Angular Fragments
41
Pebbles with Scars or Indentations
43
Polished Faceted Pebbles
44
Subangular Pebbles
45
Elongated and Flattened Pebbles
47
ORIGINAL SURFACE FEATURES OF SEDIMENTS
48
DESCRIPTION AND EXPLANATION
49
Wave Marks
51
Sun Cracks
52
Rain Prints
53
Frost Marks
54
STRUCTURES AND STRUCTURAL RELATIONS OF SEDI MENTARY ROCKS
55
Bedding in Chemical and Organic Deposits
56
Interstratification of Materials of Diverse Origin
58
Pseudostratification
59
Consolidation of Chemical Sediments
61
MODES OF OCCURRENCE
62
Relations between Unconsolidated Transported Deposits and Bedrock Regional Unconformity
63
Relations between Unconsolidated Residual Deposits and Bedrock Regional Unconformity
65
Regional Unconformity in Bedrock
66
Clastic Dikes
69
Clastic Pipes
71
STRUCTURES DEPENDING UPON THE MUTUAL RELATIONS OF BEDS OH LAMINAE
72
Sun Cracks
74
Contemporaneous Deformation
75
B Delta Structure
76
Compound Foreset Bedding in Deltas
78
Torrential Crossbedding
79
F Wavebuilt Crossbedding
80
H Ripplemark
82
Comparison of Types of Crossbedding
83
Uniform Lamination
84
Textural Variation within Single Beds and Laminae
85
84a Intraformational Fragments
86
Isolated Masses of Unconsolidated Material in Surface Deposits
87
Arrangement of Pebbles
88
Arrangement of Sand Grains
89
FIELD INTERPRETATION OF SEDIMENTARY MATERIALS
91
Direction of Current
92
Physiographic Conditions at Time of Deposition
94
Characters of Marine Littoral and Continental Deposits
95
Conditions of Unconformity
97
Stratigraphic Sequence
103
Relative Age of Clastic Dikes and Pipes
104
IGNEOUS ROCKS
107
Contacts and Contact Zones
112
Size of Eruptive Bodies
118
Consolidation of Molten Rock
119
CONTACTS
121
Sharpness
122
CONTACT ZONE IN THE ERUPTIVE ROCK
124
Vesicular and Amygdaloidal Structures
125
Flow Structure
126
Schliers and Segregations
127
CONTACT ZONE IN THE COUNTRY ROCK
128
Baking
129
Cleavage
131
INCLUSIONS
132
Overhead Stoping and Intrusive Breccias
133
Characters of Inclusions
134
Source of Inclusions
135
Discrimination between Inclusions and Segregations
137
Discrimination between Inclusions and Erosion Patches
138
FIELD INTERPRETATION AND CLASSIFICATION OF ERUPTIVE BODIES
139
General Summary with Reference to the Interpretation of Contact Phenomena
141
ERUPTIVE BODIES IN RELATION TO THEIR TIME OF ORIGIN
143
Geologic Age
145
Topographic Expression of Igneous Bodies
146
Relations of Contact Zones to Topography
151
Effects of Topography on the Shape of Outcropping Dikes Sills and Contacts
152
FOLDS
153
TERMNOLOGY AND CLASSIFICATION
154
Varieties of Folds
156
Size of Folds
160
Strike Dip and Pitch
162
Amount of Tilting
164
Significance of Minor Folds in Relation to Major Folds
165
Top and Bottom of Steeply Inclined Vertical and Over turned Bods
166
FOLDS IN RELATION TO THEIR TIME OF ORIGIN
167
Folds that Originate in Unconsolidated Sediments
168
Discrimination between Folds Originating before and after Consolidation
172
FOLDS IN RELATION TO THE LAND SURFACE
173
Breadth of Outcrop Defined
174
li9 Effects of Topography on the Distribution of Outcrops
175
Traverses across and along Strike
177
Correlation of Strata
178
FRACTURES AND FRACTURE STRUCTURES
179
Terms of General Application
181
Kinds of Displacement
183
Classification of Faults
186
Terms for Fault Blocks
190
Omission and Repetition of Beds Defined
192
Slickensides and Other Features on Fault Surfaces
193
Visible Displacement of Veins Dikes Strata Etc
194
Discontinuity of Linear Structures along Their General Trend Offset
195
Abrupt Termination of Structures along their Trend
198
Repetition of Beds
201
Omission of Beds
202
FAULTS IN RELATION TO THEIR TIME OF ORIGIN
204
Warped and Folded Faults
205
Geologic Age of Faults
206
Discrimination between Faults Originating in Sediments Before and After Consolidation
207
FAULTS IN RELATION TO THE LAND SURFACE
208
Topographic Expression of Horsts Grabens and Basins
209
Effects of Topography on the Trend of Fault Lines
210
Effects of Faulting on Streams
211
Displacement Relative to Sea Level
212
Topographic Forms as Evidences of Faulting
213
JOINTS
214
METAMORPHIC ROCKS
229
STUDY OF CLEAVAGE
235
Discrimination between Flow Cleavage and Fracture Cleavage
236
Relations of Cleavage and Bedding in Folds
237
Uses of Cleavage in Geologic Interpretation
238
Distortion of Original Structures Fossils Pebbles etc
239
Degrees of Dynamic Metamorphism in Clastic Sedimentary Rocks
242
RECOGNITION OF THE ULTIMATE ORIGIN OF METAMORPHIC ROCKS
243
Discrimination between Primary and Secondary Gneisses
244
METAMORPHIC ROCKS IN RELATION TO THEIR TIME OF ORIGIN
245
MINERAL DEPOSITS
246
STUDY OF SUBSEQUENT MINERAL DEPOSITS
247
Forms of Subsequent Mineral Deposits
248
Distribution of Subsequent Deposits
249
Size of Vein Deposits
250
placement Deposits
251
Discrimination between Veins and Dikes
252
TOPOGRAPHIC FORMS
253
SLOPES
254
CLIFFS
256
Fault Cliffs
257
Volcanic Cliffs
259
Faceted Spurs
264
BEACHES
267
BENCHES AND TERRACES
271
Fault Benches
272
Constructional Terraces
273
Destructional Benches
274
Destructional Terraces
275
PLAINS
277
Volcanic Plains
278
Constructional Plains
279
Destructional Plains
282
SWAMPS
286
VALLEYS AND BASINS
287
Fault Valleys and Basins
290
Volcanic Basins
291
Constructional Valleys and Basins
294
Destructional Basins
296
Destructional Sinks
297
Destructional Valleys
298
Vshaped Valleys
299
Solution Valleys
300
F Valleys and Channels without Streams
301
G Glacial Valleys
303
H Cirques and Drift Hollows
305
CAVES AND NATURAL BRIDGES
307
HILLS RIDGES AND OTHER POSITIVE LAND FORMS
308
Fault Mountains
309
Volcanic Cones
310
Destructional Hills and Ridges
318
TOPOGRAPHIC EXPRESSION
323
CYCLES OF TOPOGRAPHIC DEVELOPMENT
324
Cycle of Mountain Glacier Erosion
326
Cycle of Marine Erosion
328
Cycle of Arid Erosion
331
TOPOGRAPHIC EXPRESSION DEVELOPED IN Two SUCCESSIVE CYCLES
332
Abandoned Shore Lines
333
TOPOGRAPHIC EXPRESSION IN ITS RELATION TO GEOLOGIC STRUC TURE
336
TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS AND PROFILE SECTIONS
340
Scale
342
Direction
343
Construction of a Profile Section
344
Enlargement of Profile Sections
346
INTERPRETATION OF CONTOUR MAPS
347
Spacing of Contours
348
Inclination of a Slope
349
GEOLOGIC SURVEYING
350
GENERAL FIELD OBSERVATIONS
351
Discrimination between Bowlders and Outcrops
352
Location of Contacts Buried Under a Soil Mantle
354
Location of Eruptive Contacts
355
Obscure Bedding
356
The Field Notebook
357
OBSERVATIONS WITH COMPASS AND CLINOMETER
359
Setting the Compass for True Bearings
362
Degree of Accuracy in Taking Strike and Dip of Strata
364
Attitude of Contorted Strata
365
SCHEDULE FOR FIELD OBSERVATIONS
366
METHODS OF GEOLOGIC SURVEYING
368
Geologic Surveying with a Working Map
371
RECORDING GEOLOGIC INFORMATION
372
Notes for a Compass Traverse
374
Taking Notes with a Working Map
377
Collecting and Trimming Specimens
379
Taking Photographs
380
How Much Shall be Undertaken in the Field?
381
MODES OF GEOLOGIC ILLUSTRATION
383
Position of Boundaries between Rock Bodies
385
Relations of Topography to Geologic Mapping
387
Filling in an Outcrop Map of Stratified Rocks
389
Use of Profile Secions in Geologic Map Construction
390
Nature of the Legend
393
Construction of a Profile Geologic Section Across Folded
403
INTERPRETATION OF GEOLOGIC MAPS
425
Strike Symbols
427
Igneous Rocks
431
Unconformities
432
Faults
433
GEOLOGIC COMPUTATIONS
435
SOLUTION OF PARTICULAR PROBLEMS
436
Point of Intersection between a Line and a Plane
437
Thickness of a Layer
439
Depth of a Point in an Inclined Surface
440
Slip and Shift of Faults
441
PREPARATION OF GEOLOGIC REPORTS
447
Parts of a Manuscript Report
448
Introduction
449
Petrography
450
Historical Geology
451
Economic Geology
452
Illustrations
453
Table of Contents Index etc
455
APPENDIX
457
Geologic Time Scale
459
Classification of Igneous Rocks
460
Classification of Sedimentary Rocks
461
Classification of Metamorphic Rocks
462
Table for the Identification of Clastic Sedimentary Rocks
463
Psephites
464
Psammites
468
Pelites
470
INDEX
503
Copyright

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Page 271 - ... bounded by a steeper ascending slope on one side and by a steeper descending slope on the opposite side...
Page 331 - The areas of removal are in time dissected by valleys of normal origin : if the climate is very arid, the uplands and slopes of these areas are either swept bare, or left thinly veneered with angular stony waste from which the finer particles are carried away almost as soon as they are weathered; if a less arid climate prevails on the uplands and highlands, the plants that they support will cause the retention of a larger proportion of finer waste on the slopes. The areas of deposition are, on the...
Page 332 - As the processes thus far described continue through geological periods, the initial relief will be extinguished even under the slow processes of desert erosion, and there will appear instead large, rockfloored plains sloping toward large waste-floored plains; the plains will be interrupted only where parts of the initial highlands and masses of unusually resistant rocks here and there survive as isolated residual mountains.
Page 186 - the vertical distance between corresponding lines in the two fracture surfaces of a disrupted stratum, etc., measured in a vertical plane at right angles to the fault strike.
Page 244 - ... of pegmatite belonging to the same magmatic series as the gneiss and either parallel to the gneissic structure and foliated with it or cutting the gneissic structure and undisturbed; lack of sharp contact between the acidic and more basic portions of the gneiss, indicating high temperature during the...
Page 245 - ... composition, none of which may show evidence of shearing; flowlike curves of the banding, some of which may close in a circle." " Mineralogical evidence: Presence of minerals formed characteristically only from igneous melts and arranged in a manner impossible of formation from solid rocks by metamorphism, eg, nepheline and olivine; textures due to crystallization from an igneous melt.
Page 265 - Fig. 6; nothing of the front edge noir remains. graded slopes about as fast as the fault block is raised. Three significant stages of faulting and erosion may be considered. In an early stage, Figure 6, the low fault scarp is notched by ravines whose location and length are determined by the site of prefaulting inequalities in the upper surface of the block. Adjacent ravines have not yet widened sufficiently to consume the edge at the top of the block between them. In a later stage, Figure 7, the...
Page 331 - The altitude at which the desert plain will stand is evidently independent of the general baselevel — or sea-level — and dependent only on the original form and altitude of the region, and on the amount of dust that it has lost through wind transportation. The most perfect maturity would be reached when the drainage of all the arid region becomes integrated with respect to a single aggraded basin-baselevel, so that the slopes should lead from all parts of the surface to a single area for the...
Page 265 - ... inequalities in the upper surface of the block. Adjacent ravines have not yet widened sufficiently to consume the edge at the top of the block between them. In a later stage, Figure 7, the block is raised higher, the ravines are worn deeper and further back, some of them being larger than others. Nothing of the upper front edge of the block now remains, for the flaring walls of the ravines now meet in a sharp ridge crest that rises backward from the vertex of a triangular facet on the block front,...

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