Field guide to old ponderosa pines in the Colorado Front Range, Issue 109
United States Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, 2003 - Nature - 43 pages
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500 years old apical dominance aspen beginning to flatten bonsai burl Cheesman Lake property Colorado Front Range Crown Point road dark dead top deep fissures dense dominance dwarf mistletoe east-facing edge facing slopes Figure flakes gentle Hayman fire heavy branches Huckaby inches inside date lightning scars live crown ratio logging long live crown lower branches middle-aged tree montane zone Mountain Research Station old ponderosa pines old tree crown old tree lived open crown open-grown crown orange or gray Pingree Park Road pith date pointed top ponderosa pine forest ponderosa pine trees poor sites Poudre Canyon pruned Redfeather-Rustic road relatively ridge ridgetop Rock outcroppings Rocky Mountain Research self-prune slope at Cheesman small live crown smooth orange bark smooth orange-gray bark sparse crown surface fire tree grows trees are old trees are usually trunk typically open-grown understory west-facing slope Young Douglas-fir trees young ponderosa pines young trees