Filipino-American Postcolonial Psychology: Oppression, Colonial Mentality, and Decolonization
There are over 92 million Filipinos in the Philippines, where the legacies of Western colonialism continue to exist and propagate the message that anything Filipino is inferior to anything American or Western. Thus, many Filipinos dream of immigrating to various Western countries, mostly to the United States. Today, Filipinos have the second highest yearly immigration rate into the United States and compose the second largest immigrant group in the country. Also, Filipinos in America number over 3 million, making them the second largest Asian American ethnic group in the country. Not surprisingly, there has been increased attention on the experiences of Filipinos and Filipino Americans as minorities and immigrants, as well as toward better understanding their identity, cultural values, and mental health.However, given the conditions of postcolonial Philippines and the contemporary experiences of oppression by Filipinos in America, one cannot completely and accurately understand the minority, immigrant, and psychological experiences of this group outside the context of colonialism and contemporary oppression. Thus, this text focuses on the psychological effects of historical colonialism and contemporary oppression among Filipinos and Filipino Americans. It takes the reader from indigenous Tao culture, Spanish and American colonialism, colonial mentality or internalized oppression along with its implications on Kapwa, identity, and mental health, to decolonization in the clinical, community, and research settings.This book is a multidisciplinary and empirical approach to Filipino and Filipino American psychology. It is intended for the entire community, teachers, researchers, students, and service providers interested in or who are working with Filipinos and Filipino Americans, or those who are interested in the psychological consequences of colonialism and oppression. This book may serve as a tool for remembering the past and as a tool for awakening to address the present.
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In The Beginning
United States Colonialism
The Aftermath 7 3
Automaticity of Colonial Mentality 1 01
Mental Health Implications
Colonial Mentality 1 57
Filipino American Decolonization
Postcolonial Psychological Research
Glossary Of Terms
Colonial Mentality and
acculturation activated African Americans Agoncillo American culture American or Western American Postcolonial Psychology Asian American automatically behaviors believe client CM manifestations CM or internalized CM-consistent cognitions colonial mentality colonialism and contemporary community psychology concepts contemporary oppression crab mentality cross-cultural cultural knowledge system cultural mistrust David & Okazaki decolonization depression discrimination discussed in Chapter dominant E. J. R. David Enriquez ethnic identity ethnicity and culture experiences of Filipinos field of psychology Filipino American community Filipino American psychology Filipino Americans Filipino culture Filipino heritage Filipino history Filipino values Filipinos and Filipino Filipinos or Filipino Furthermore global psychology heritage culture historical and contemporary historical colonialism Hiya implicit Implicit Association Test indigenous psychology indigenous Taos individuals inferior internalized oppression Marsella's Nadal negative one's overt CM PAID model Pakikisama paradigm participants person Ph.D Philippines primed regard sense of Kapwa Sikolohiyang Pilipino social Spanish theories understanding United unpleasant Utang na loob Western or American