Fire ecology and prescribed burning in the Great Plains: a research review, Issues 76-80
Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Forest Service, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1979 - Fire ecology - 60 pages
Historical evidence indicates that fires were prevalent in grasslands. In the past, big prairie fires usually occurred during drought years that followed 1 to 3 years of above-average precipitation, which provided abundant and continuous fuel. Fire frequency probably varied from 5 to 10 years in level-to-rolling topography and from 15 to 30 years in the rougher, dissected topography containing rough breaks and rivers. This paper contains basic ecological information, vegetative descriptions, and fire effects data for the shortgrass, mixed grass, and tallgrass prairies in the southern, central, and northern Great Plains. In the appendix, fire effects data have been tabulated for each species for quick reference. Prescription guides are provided for all major vegetation types where prescribed burning data have been collected. In the shortgrass prairie, grasses do not benefit from prescribed burning, but fire can be used to clean up uprooted brush, kill small juniper, and kill cactus. Prescribed fire has a wider variety of uses in the mixed and tallgrass prairies, particularly if the burns are conducted following winters with above-average precipitation. Major benefits of prescibed burning are to control undesirable shrubs and trees, burn dead debris, increase herbage yields, increase utilization of coarse grasses, increase availability of forage, improve wildlife habitat, and to control exotic, cool-season grasses. Often, several objectives can be achieved simultaneously. Prescribed fire frequency should not be more often than 5 to 8 years in a 20-inch (51-cm) precipitation zone but can be as often as 1 to 3 years in a 35- to 40- inch (89- to 102-cm) precipitation zone. Good soil moisture in the upper 1 ft (0.3 m) of soil is especially important before conducting a prescribed burn if the goal is to increase yield and palatability of forage. If control of shrubs is the primary consideration, such as in juniper country, burning during drought years may have the best long-term effect. To use prescribed fire is not as dangerous as most people think, providing it is done by experienced personnel. We recommed a minimum of 2 years of prescribed burning experience under a range of weather conditions for individuals having major supervisory responsibilities. Moreover, we recommend that supervisors be trained in planning and conducting burns and in evaluating the weather. To achieve a desired effect and for safety, one must have the skill to recognize, and the patience to wait for favorable weather.
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FIRE EFFECTS MIXED PRAIRIE ll
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40 percent air temperature Anderson l965 areas Ashe juniper aspen parkland Bailey big bluestem blue grama buffalograss central Alberta central Great Plains cool season Dakota decreased Dominant grasses effects of fire fall burns fescue grassland fescue prairie Fire effects fireline foothills forbs forest fringed sage grasslands grazed green needlegrass growing season Growth form harmed by fire headfire Heirman and Wright herbaceous sage honey mesquite inches Indiangrass Kansas Kentucky bluegrass kg/ha kill l5 mi/h Launchbaugh lb/acre little bluestem loam McMurphy and Anderson mi/h l3 km/h Nebraska needle-and-thread northern Great Plains pasture plants Prairie Fire prairie sandreed prescribed burning reduced relative humidity Rolling Plains rough fescue scurfpea sedge severely harmed shortgrass prairie shrubs sideoats grama snowberry southern mixed prairie species spring burning sprins burnins sprouter ssama sumac switchgrass tall tallgrass prairie Texas tobosagrass unburned vegetation western snowberry western wheatgrass wheatssass wildfire wind Wink and Wright Wright l973