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Relationships of Major Tree Species to Fire
Undergrowth Response to Fire
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Abies Arno Barrett blister rust burned canopy dense Department of Agriculture dominated Douglas-fir downed woody fuels duff ecosystems Engelmann spruce fire effects fire exclusion Fire Group Four Fire Group Seven fire regimes fire severity Forest and Range Forest Service fuel loadings grand fir Group Five Habeck habitat types inches increase Intermountain Forest Intermountain Research Station lodgepole pine low-severity fire mature Menziesia ferruginea mineral soil Missoula moist moisture mortality mountain pine beetle Nez Perce National nonlethal northern Idaho occur Ogden overstory Pathway Perce National Forest percent phase pine stands ponderosa pine postfire prescribed fire PSME/PHMA Range Experiment Station seed seedlings Selway-Bitterroot Wilderness seral species severe fire shrubfields slopes Sprouts from surviving stand-replacing fire subalpine fir succession successional Tech tenax tons per acre tree regeneration tree species U.S. Department underburns understory Vaccinium Vaccinium scoparium western hemlock western larch western Montana western redcedar western white pine whitebark pine