Fire whirls, why, when, and where
Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, U.S. Forest Service, 1971 - Nature - 11 pages
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active fire air and combustion airflow Atmospheric instability atmospheric stability columns develop rotational combustion products configurations that concentrate containing fire core cumulus clouds debris moving develop rotational motion dust devils eddies to form Fair-weather cumulus favorable fire area fire behavior fire boss fire control operations fire convection column fire crews fire front fire intensity fire spotting fire weather forecast FIRE WHIRL DEVELOPMENT Fire whirls frequently fireline personnel flow Forest and Range Forest Service Hawaii hot air hot gases hotspots layer lee side pick up burning prescribed burning prevailing wind rapidly moving air ridge rotating air short lived side of obstructions smoke column spot fires strong convective activity strongly heated tend Terrain configurations type clouds unstable air unstable atmospheric condition unstable conditions updraft columns vortex warm air column whirl increase whirl moved whirl that moves whirls are small whirls frequently appear whirls in wildfires wind direction wind shear windflow windstream woody fuels